cariology: saliva, diet, fluoride
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cariology: saliva, diet, fluoride
cariology saliva diet fluoride
cariology: saliva, diet, fluoride
What needs to be present on tooth surface for acid to form?
and cariogenic plaque
Resting pH _____ with tooth surface.
Plaque within an active carious lession has
lower or higher
resting pH than plaque on inactive carious lesions.
single sucrose rinse can cause _______ lasting _______ and several hours.
b. 20 minutes
How do you get pH back to baseline values?
have acids diffuse out of the plaque
Describe the Vipeholm Hospital.
evidence linking diet and caries
mentally handicapped individuals
6 experimental groups
vary quanity and frequency of sticky or non-sticky sugar intake was studied
Describe the animal experiments with the rat and bacteria.
rats, who had no bacteria in their mouths, were fed a cariogenic diet, caries did not develop
compare cariogenicity of foods
What are the monosaccharies of sugar?
What are these disacchardies: sucrose, maltose, lactose?
: glucose + fructose
: glucose + glucose
: glucose + galactose
What are the different categories for non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES)?
1. intrinsic sugars
: reside inside cellular structure
sugars w/in fruits, vegies, grains
2. extrinsic sugars
: reside outside of cellular structure
added sugars, processed fruits
What are starches?
long glucose chains
likelihood of fermentation
oral motor limitations
cooked starched with sugar
what are the hydrolyzed starch products?
glucose syrups (liquid glucose)
maltodextrins (glucose polymers)
what are the high-fructose corn syrup?
hydrolyzed corn starch followed by chemical isomerization
a blend of glucose, fructose, and oligosaccharides
What are cariogenic?
glucose and fructose
mixed with short chain glucose units
: adherence properties and susceptible to fermentation
: not as efficiently organized
What are some advice to pregnant and nursing mothers?
stop bottle feeding by 1st year
don't add sugar or honey to baby foods
no transfer of pacifier from mother to child
What are some advice for young children?
quality snacks with reduced sugar
only water at bed time
What are advices to chronically sick children?
strict dietary control
What are advices for patients with dry mouth?
sugarless sweets, gums, water, and mouth lubricants
What is the dietary misconceptions?
only refined sugars are harmful
honey - health "natural sugar"
What should be identified on food labels?
starches, sugars, sugar substitutes
carogenicity of components
What are the nutritional recommendations for good health?
enjoy your food
eat a variety of different foods
eat the right amount to be a health weight
eat plenty of foods rich in starch and fiber
eat plenty of fruits and veggies
don't eat too many food containing lots of fat
don't have sugary foods and drinks too often
if you drink alcohol, drink sensibly
What are the food and drinks with low potential for dental caries?
pasta, rice, starchy food
cheese, fibrous foods
low sugar breakfast cereals
sugar-free chewing gum
water, milk, sugar-free drinks
tea coffee unsweetened
Quantity and ______ of cariogenic food has a big impact on caries disease.
List fluoride ingestion and dental flurosis.
: gel, paste, mouthwash, gels, foam, garnism
: fluoridated water, fluoride supplements, food and fluoride
prior to 1980, thought that fluoride work was through _____.
The optimal amount of fluoride in water is ______. why tap water?
inexpensive, cost-effective, potential to reach lots of people
what is mottling?
fluoride shown up on teeth.
How does fluoride help?
reduces the rate of demineralization
enhances the mineral uptake
delays the progression of lesions
inhibits caries activity through bacterial inhibiton.
Chemically, how does fluoride work?
fluoroapatie is less soluable than hydroxyapatite
newly erupted teeth takes up for fluoride because of bigger pores
in bottle water, there is ____ amount of fluoride.
typically very low concentration
What does dietary fluoride provide? why made?
provides moderal dose systemic fluoride
designed to take place of fluoridated water
can be effective in selected populations
Generally, how much fluoride should a these children have: 0-6 months, 6mon-3 yrs, 3-6 yrs, more than 6 yrs
: 0.25mg or <0.3 ppm
: 0.5mg-0.25 mg or 0.3-0.6 ppm
more than 6 yrs
: 0.5-1 mg or 0.3-0.6 ppm
Fluoride dentifrice. amount? example?
about 1000 ppm
young children are recommended small "pea-size"
ex. prevident 5000 ppm
OTC Rinses and gels. Types? amount?
: 226 ppm
: 1000 ppm
home use gels
Profesionally applied products. Types? Amounts?
office gels and foams
: 9000-12000 ppm
: 22,000 ppm
: slow release fluoride. for rampant carries
some hidden sources of ingested fluoride.
soups, cereals, rice, pasta, kool-aid, juice concentrated, infant formulas
: juices, soft drinks, tea
: seafood, processed chicken, infant cereals
very low F beverages.
What is acute F toxicity?
Toxic effects at 5mg/kg body weight
: nausea and vomiting, 1-2 ounces of toothpaste
leath dose 15 mg F/kg body weight in children
: 5 ounces of toothpaste
What is physiology and toxicological aspects of acute fluoride toxicity?
: fast through mostly stomach
: kidney - fecal less that 10%
: water compartments - all over
deposited in bone and developing teeth and thru blood flow thru pulp with retention in infant skeletal structure as high as 80% and in adults about 50%
what is skeletal fluorosis?
debilitating bone disease - brittle, malformed long bones
how? long term exposure to inhaled fluoride. 20-80mg/day for more than 10 years
chronic exposure to 4-8 ppm water F can cause change in bone density
rarely seen in US
Is it well-known how F affects bone?
it may affects cortical and trabecular bone differently
Describes dental fluorosis.
It can occur in primary and permanent teeth
: excessive F ingestion during tooth development
: intrinsice, permanent stain (usually white and can be dark brown or orange)
: tooth enamel can be damaged
can happen even with very low F intake
Describe the 4 scores of dental fluorosis.
: earliest sign - thin, white, opaque lines across tooth surface
: opaque white lines more pronounced. merge to form wider bands
: entire tooth exhibits cloudy, white opaque areas
: entirely white opaque enamel, part of the enamel may break away
What is the concentration of dental fluorosis in teeth? the amount and duration?
greatest at the surface - enamel and pulp
level in different layers of enamel reflect exposure during tooth development
different teeth can be affected
: upper central incisor - 15-30 months of age while children under 7 - minimize F ingestion
what is the risk factors for dental Fluorosis?
high F level in water
dietary F supplements
F products - early or overuse
higher income family
amoxicillin in infancy
The saliva composition and flow rate are important host factors that modify ______ process.
What are saliva's protective role?
clean food substances from mouth
neutralize and buffer organic acids formed by microorganisms
reduce demineralization rate
enhance remineralization by providing Ca, PO4, and F