AFF Test One

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Anonymous
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63761
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AFF Test One
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2011-02-02 22:24:00
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AFF Chapter Animal structure function
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AFF Chapter 40
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  1. How do organisms function (problems that must be solved)?
    food and feeding, digestion, respiration, transport of gases in blood, circulation of blood, elimination of waste, detection and processing of sensory info, generation and coordination of movement, reproduction
  2. Comparative physiology
    examines how different organisms solve the same problems
  3. How are all of the functions within an organism regulated to produce a smooth-functioning organism?
    homeostasis
  4. homeostasis
    the maintenance of a constant internal state
  5. What is feedback?
    regulatory mechanism; can be either negative or positive feedback
  6. What is used to control the processes in the organism that influence the internal level of the variable?
    sensory information
  7. Negative Feedback
    a change in a physiological variable that i being monitored by receptors triggers a response by effectors that counteracts the initial fluctuation, keeping the variable at or near its set point
  8. Positive Feedback
    a change in some variable triggers effectors that amplify the change, thereby taking the variable further away from the set point
  9. Regulation
    Change in an organism's enviroment induce internal body changes that maintain the internal environment over a range of external environment change
  10. Conformity
    Change in an organism's environment induce internal body changes that parallel the external conditions
  11. Can you be a regulator for one factor and a conformer for another?
    yes
  12. How do organisms respond to changes in their environment within their lifetime?
    abiotic and biotic
  13. abiotic
    Nonliving; referring to physical and chemical properties of an environment.
  14. biotic
    Pertaining to the living organisms in the environment.
  15. How have organisms "gained the ability" to deal with problems posed by their environment?
    adaptation and evolution by natural selection
  16. Fundamentals of evolution by natural selection
    • variation in trait
    • heritable component to that variation
    • differential survival and reporoduction
  17. What is a restriction on natural selection?
    selection can only operate on structures, processes, behaviors, that are already present
  18. Adaptation
    a process of genetic change of a population due to natural selection; the average state of a character becomes improved with reference to a specific function; a popultaion is thought to have becone better suited to some feature of its environment
  19. Acclimatization
    physiological, biochemical, or anatomic change within an individual animal that results from the animal's chronic exposure to new, naturally occurring environmental conditions in the animal's native environment
  20. Acclimation
    physiological, biochemical, or anatomic change within an indivisual animal that results from the animal's chronic exposure to new conditions that are induced experimentally in the labratory or field by an investigator
  21. What is the order of analysis
    molecular - cellular - tissue/organ - organ system - organism
  22. What techniques for studying physiology were developed first?
    organism level
  23. emergent properties
    organism is more than the sum of its parts
  24. Tissue
    aggregation of cells that have similar structure and function
  25. histology
    the study of the microscopic anatomy of different tissue types
  26. The entire body is composed of what four majoy types of tissues
    muscle, nervous, epithelial, connective
  27. Muscle tissue
    specialized for contraction
  28. skeletal muscle
    • causes movement of the skeleton
    • voluntary
    • striated
    • individual cells are fibers and myofibers
    • each fiber recieves nervous input that controls contraction
  29. cardiac muscle
    • involuntary
    • cells - myocardial cells - short, branched, and interconnected
    • cells connected mechanically and electrically intercalated discs
  30. smooth muscle
    • digestive tract, bloos vessles
    • involuntary
    • not striated
    • cells arranged circularly - contraction causes contriction of the lumen
  31. Nervous tissue
    supporting cells(glia) and neurons
  32. glia
    non-conductive cells of the nervous system; provide mechanical support, nourishment, and electrical insulation to neurons ; out numbered electrically-conducting cells by about 5:1
  33. Neurons
    electrically-conductive cells of the nervous system
  34. cell body (soma)
    contains nucleus, metabolic center of the cell
  35. Dendrites
    cytoplasmic extensions that recieve info from sensory cells or other neurons
  36. Axon
    single cytoplasmic extension that conducts electrical pulses to other neurons or to the effector
  37. epithelial classifications(shapes)
    • squamous - flattened
    • columnar - taller than they are wide
    • cubodial - as wide as they are tall
  38. epithelial classifications (number of layers)
    simple, stratified, pseudostratified
  39. simple squamous
    thin, good for diffusion across; walls of capillaries; walls of alveoli in lungs
  40. stratifies squamous
    pretty tough; resists abrasion and acts as a barrie; lining of uterine cervix; epidermis of skin
  41. simple columnar
    secretion and absorbtion; lining of intestine
  42. simple cubodial
    specialized for secretion; kidney tubules; thyroid gland; many exocrine glands(mammary, salivary)
  43. Epithelial glands
    • derived from epithelial membranes
    • endocrine glands - ductless glands, secretes chemicals directly into the bloodstream
    • exocrine glands - have ducts, chemicals secreted through duct onto surface of animal
  44. Connective tissue
    • areolar(loose) tissue
    • fibrous(dense) tissue
    • adipose tissue
  45. areolar tissue
    • fibroblasts, macrophages, binds epithelia to underlying tissues and hols organs in place
    • collagenous, elastic, reticular
  46. fibroblasts
    secrete protein fibers of ECM
  47. macrophages
    engulf bacteria and dead cells
  48. fibrous connective tissue
    high density of collagenous fibers in ECM arranges in parallel bundles; maximizes nonelastic strength; found in tendons, ligaments and a few other places
  49. adipose tissue
    protects, stores fat, insulates
  50. Cartilage
    • composes of cells called chondrocytes, semisolid ground substance that gives some elastic properties
    • hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
  51. hyaline cartliage
    ECM appears glassy due to low concentration of protein fibers; decreases friction at joints; on ends of long bones and ribs
  52. elastic cartilage
    ECM contains lots of protein elastin; able to rebound when distorted; external ear
  53. fibrocartilage
    ECM contains lots of collagen; resists compressive forces; in intervertebral discs and pubic symphasis
  54. Bone
    bone-forming cells (osteoblasts) secrete calcium-containing products; cells become entrapped in bone and are referred to as osteocytes; osteoclasts - involved in removing/recycling exsisting bone
  55. Blood
    • abundant fluid ECM, containing water, salts, dissolved proteins
    • erthyrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
  56. erythrocytes
    red blood cells; carry oxygen
  57. leukocytes
    white blood cells; defense against viruses, bacteria, and other invaders
  58. platelets
    cell fragments involved in blood clotting
  59. organ
    a structure in the body composed of two or more primary tissues that performs a specific function
  60. organ systems
    organs that are located in different regions of the body and that perform related functions

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