AFF Test One
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How do organisms function (problems that must be solved)?
food and feeding, digestion, respiration, transport of gases in blood, circulation of blood, elimination of waste, detection and processing of sensory info, generation and coordination of movement, reproduction
examines how different organisms solve the same problems
How are all of the functions within an organism regulated to produce a smooth-functioning organism?
the maintenance of a constant internal state
What is feedback?
regulatory mechanism; can be either negative or positive feedback
What is used to control the processes in the organism that influence the internal level of the variable?
a change in a physiological variable that i being monitored by receptors triggers a response by effectors that counteracts the initial fluctuation, keeping the variable at or near its set point
a change in some variable triggers effectors that amplify the change, thereby taking the variable further away from the set point
Change in an organism's enviroment induce internal body changes that maintain the internal environment over a range of external environment change
Change in an organism's environment induce internal body changes that parallel the external conditions
Can you be a regulator for one factor and a conformer for another?
How do organisms respond to changes in their environment within their lifetime?
abiotic and biotic
Nonliving; referring to physical and chemical properties of an environment.
Pertaining to the living organisms in the environment.
How have organisms "gained the ability" to deal with problems posed by their environment?
adaptation and evolution by natural selection
Fundamentals of evolution by natural selection
- variation in trait
- heritable component to that variation
- differential survival and reporoduction
What is a restriction on natural selection?
selection can only operate on structures, processes, behaviors, that are already present
a process of genetic change of a population due to natural selection; the average state of a character becomes improved with reference to a specific function; a popultaion is thought to have becone better suited to some feature of its environment
physiological, biochemical, or anatomic change within an individual animal that results from the animal's chronic exposure to new, naturally occurring environmental conditions in the animal's native environment
physiological, biochemical, or anatomic change within an indivisual animal that results from the animal's chronic exposure to new conditions that are induced experimentally in the labratory or field by an investigator
What is the order of analysis
molecular - cellular - tissue/organ - organ system - organism
What techniques for studying physiology were developed first?
organism is more than the sum of its parts
aggregation of cells that have similar structure and function
the study of the microscopic anatomy of different tissue types
The entire body is composed of what four majoy types of tissues
muscle, nervous, epithelial, connective
specialized for contraction
- causes movement of the skeleton
- individual cells are fibers and myofibers
- each fiber recieves nervous input that controls contraction
- cells - myocardial cells - short, branched, and interconnected
- cells connected mechanically and electrically intercalated discs
- digestive tract, bloos vessles
- not striated
- cells arranged circularly - contraction causes contriction of the lumen
supporting cells(glia) and neurons
non-conductive cells of the nervous system; provide mechanical support, nourishment, and electrical insulation to neurons ; out numbered electrically-conducting cells by about 5:1
electrically-conductive cells of the nervous system
cell body (soma)
contains nucleus, metabolic center of the cell
cytoplasmic extensions that recieve info from sensory cells or other neurons
single cytoplasmic extension that conducts electrical pulses to other neurons or to the effector
- squamous - flattened
- columnar - taller than they are wide
- cubodial - as wide as they are tall
epithelial classifications (number of layers)
simple, stratified, pseudostratified
thin, good for diffusion across; walls of capillaries; walls of alveoli in lungs
pretty tough; resists abrasion and acts as a barrie; lining of uterine cervix; epidermis of skin
secretion and absorbtion; lining of intestine
specialized for secretion; kidney tubules; thyroid gland; many exocrine glands(mammary, salivary)
- derived from epithelial membranes
- endocrine glands - ductless glands, secretes chemicals directly into the bloodstream
- exocrine glands - have ducts, chemicals secreted through duct onto surface of animal
- areolar(loose) tissue
- fibrous(dense) tissue
- adipose tissue
- fibroblasts, macrophages, binds epithelia to underlying tissues and hols organs in place
- collagenous, elastic, reticular
secrete protein fibers of ECM
engulf bacteria and dead cells
fibrous connective tissue
high density of collagenous fibers in ECM arranges in parallel bundles; maximizes nonelastic strength; found in tendons, ligaments and a few other places
protects, stores fat, insulates
- composes of cells called chondrocytes, semisolid ground substance that gives some elastic properties
- hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
ECM appears glassy due to low concentration of protein fibers; decreases friction at joints; on ends of long bones and ribs
ECM contains lots of protein elastin; able to rebound when distorted; external ear
ECM contains lots of collagen; resists compressive forces; in intervertebral discs and pubic symphasis
bone-forming cells (osteoblasts) secrete calcium-containing products; cells become entrapped in bone and are referred to as osteocytes; osteoclasts - involved in removing/recycling exsisting bone
- abundant fluid ECM, containing water, salts, dissolved proteins
- erthyrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
red blood cells; carry oxygen
white blood cells; defense against viruses, bacteria, and other invaders
cell fragments involved in blood clotting
a structure in the body composed of two or more primary tissues that performs a specific function
organs that are located in different regions of the body and that perform related functions
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