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1 cubic foot of water = 6.22 Imp Gal
1 cubic foot of water = 7.48 US Gal
relative denity of Hg = 13.6
The weight of 1 Imp. gal of water.
Weight of 1 US gal of water
1 cubic foot of water weighs
1 cubic meter of water weighs
Define saturated steam.
steam at the same temp. as the water from which the steam was produced
What is the most steam produced by one lb of water?
dry saturated steam
.98lb of steam.
How do you convert guage pressure to absolute pressure?
How do you convert Inches of Vaccuum to psia?
subtract the reading from 29.92" to acheive positive pressure and then multiply the answer by .491 psi/inch of mercury
A pressure goes up
Boiling Temp goes.....
boiling temp increases --- direct correlation
Volume of steam becomes less --- indirect correlation
What is the 45' ratio for offsets?
run/offset times 1.414 gets hypoteneuse
What does pH stand for?
What is neutral?
What is acidic?
What is alkaline?
the level of acidity-- the # of H ions present
- Neutral = 7
- Acidic = 0-6.9
- Alkaline = 7.1 - 14
What is total hardness in water?
how much mineral deposit dissolved in water.
measured in 1mg/l = 1ppm
What is temporary hardness in water?
Bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium dissolved in the water. When heated, causes scaly deposits from 120'F to 140'F.
What is permanent hardness in water?
carbonates of calcium and magnesium, sulphates, nitrates and chlorides.
Do not create scale unless water is heated above 350'F. When in steam, does not evaporate so stays in boiler. This causes the sludge in boilers hence blow-off valves.
What is Archimedes' Principle?
buoyant forces acting on a body reduced the weight of the body equal to the weight of the liquid the body displaced.
The three laws of Buoyancy?
- 1. a body sinks if the mass of the fluid displaced is less than the mass of the body
- 2. if a body displaces a mass of fluid greater than its own mass, it will float
- 3. a body remains in equlibrium neither rising nor sining if the mass of the fluid it displaces equals its own mass
Buoyant Force= weight of liquid displaced
Weight of liquid displaced = volume x density of liquid
What does the pH scale measure?
hydrogen ion concentration
What causes water to be acidic?
large H ion concentration
What is considered neutral?
- below 7 = acidic
- above 7 = basic (alkaline)
An object that floats has a relative density of?
less than one
An object that floats will displace a volume of fluid...
less than the object volume
In alternating current, how often (frequency) do the electrons alternate direction?
When electricty is related to water:
- Voltage = pressure
- Amperage = flow rate
- Resistance = friction
An electricity generator has two important parts:
stator and rotor
the Electromitiv force in an electrical circuit is measured in?
Electrical current producted by most large power generating plants is usaully....
Define Ohm's Law.
- - 1 volt will push 1 amp through 1 ohm
- - increase of voltage increases current flow if resistance stays same
- - increase in resistance decreases current flow if voltage stays same
R = resistance
In series circuit all resistances (loads) are additive
- In parrallel circuit, total resistance is:
- 1/Rt=1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3
Which class of lever always has a mechanical advantage greater than 1?
Which class of lever can have a mechanical advantage greater or less than 1?
Which class of lever always has a mechanical advantage less than 1?
A pair of pliers is considered a class ____ lever.
A pipe wrench is considered a class ___ lever.
What is Boyle's Law?
the inverse relationship between pressure and volume of gases
- NOTE: based on psia
What is Charle's Law?
the direct relationship between temperature and volume of gas.
- Note: based on absolute temps.
- Rankin(imp) = +460
- Kelvin (met) = +273
What is the Combined Gas Law?
relationship between temperature and pressure.
P1V1T2 = P2V2T1
Electrons orbit the nucleus of the atom in pathways called:
Electromagnetism can be produced by:
electrical current flow creating a magnetic field around a conductor
producing electricity by chemical reaction
In a series circuit, total resistance is:
the sum of all resistances in the circuit
In a parallel circuit, total resistance is:
less than the smallest resistance in the circuit
What is the definition of flow rate?
the quantity moving in a pipe
Charle's Law states that an increase in temp will result in:
an increase of volume
What does the monoflow tee rely on?
Lever that always has mechanical advantage greater than 1?
Lever that always has mechanical advantage less than 1?