A&P Chapter 24 - Digestive System

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A&P Chapter 24 - Digestive System
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2011-02-03 15:31:17
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Chapter Digestive System
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A&P Chapter 24 - Digestive System
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  1. digestion
    • the physical and chemical breakdown of complex food into its component parts
    • catabolism
  2. digestive system
    • alimentary canal
    • accessory organs
  3. alimentary canal
    • mouth
    • pharynx
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
  4. accessory organs
    • teeth
    • tongue
    • salivary glands
    • liver
    • gallbladder
    • pancreas
  5. histology of alimentary canal
    • (inside out)
    • mucosa
    • submucosa
    • muscularis
    • serosa
  6. muscosa
    • inner lining of AC
    • simple columnar w/many lymph nodes
  7. submucosa
    • 2nd layer of AC
    • extremely vascular membrane that binds to muscularis
  8. muscularis
    • 3rd layer of AC
    • skeletal muscle tissue that produces voluntary movement of swallowing
    • found mostly in mouth, pharynx, esophagus
  9. serous
    • outside lining of AC
    • aka visceral peritoneum
  10. digestive system membranes
    • peritoneum
    • mesentary
    • mesocolon
    • greater omentum
    • falciform ligament
  11. peritoneum
    • covers all digestive organs and structures
    • largest serous membrane in the body
  12. mesentary
    binds small intestine together
  13. mesocolon
    bines large intestine to posterior body wall
  14. greater omentum
    • apron of fat that hangs over stomach and intestines
    • many lymph nodes
  15. falicform ligament
    attaches liver to diaphragm and anterior body wall
  16. food intake
    • controlled by hypothalamus
    • 2 centers: feeding center, satiety center
  17. feeding center
    • part of hypothalamus
    • when active, cannot control food intake
  18. satiety center
    • part of hypothalamus
    • when active, will not eat
  19. mechanical digestion
    chewing, moving, swallowing, mixing
  20. chemical digestion
    • all reactions that split the bonds in food to break into component parts
    • controlled by enzymes
  21. mouth
    • aka buccal cavity
    • tissue: stratified squamous non-keritinized ET
    • lined with mucous membrane
    • mostly mechanical digestion
    • chemical digestion of starch by salivary amylase
  22. vestibule
    space between teeth, lips, cheeks
  23. *bolus*
    food combined with saliva
  24. salivary amylase
    • enzyme that digests starch in the mouth
    • not completely digested because food is swallowed quickly
    • salivary amylase is denatured by stomach acid
    • produced by parotid gland
  25. lingual lipase
    • enzyme secreted by glands in the tongue
    • should digest fat but its swallowed before it occurs
    • denatured in the stomach by acid
  26. salivary glands
    3 pair: parotid, sublingual, submandibular
  27. parotid glands
    • largest salivary glands
    • in front of and slightly below the ears
    • secretes thin, watery saliva
    • produces salivary amylase
  28. sublingual glands
    • salivary glands
    • under the tongue toward front of mouth
    • produces thick mucus-like saliva
    • most active under stress
  29. submandibular glands
    • salivary glands
    • aka submaxillary glands
    • at the junction of manible and maxilla
    • contains mucus cells
    • produces thick saliva
  30. saliva
    • produce 1.5qt daily
    • 99.5% H20, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarb ions
    • contains amylase, lipase, lipoenzyme
  31. lipoenzyme
    kills bacteria in the mouth
  32. tongue
    • anchord by the hyoid bone
    • tissue: skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane
    • covered with papillae
    • 5 tastes: sweet, salt, sour, bitter, umami (savory)
    • glands produce lingual lipase
    • 2 muscles: extrinsic, intrinsic
  33. lingual septum
    divides the tongue
  34. lingual frenulum
    anchors tounge underneath
  35. extrinisc tongue muscle
    moves tongue in/out, side to side
  36. intrinsic tongue muscle
    alters size/shape of tongue during speech and swallowing
  37. teeth
    • adult: 32 permanent teeth (2123)
    • children: 20 deciduous teeth (2102)
  38. 2123/2102
    • incisors
    • canine/cuspid
    • premolar/bicuspid
    • molars
  39. crown
    part of tooth above gumline
  40. root
    1-3 projections below the gumline
  41. neck
    • junction point of crown and root
    • located at/below gumline
    • composed of dentin
  42. dentin
    calcified CT
  43. enamel
    • covers dentin of the crown
    • hardest substance in the body
  44. cementum
    • covers dentin of the root
    • not as hard as enamel
  45. pulp cavity
    blood vessels and nerves deep in the crown
  46. root canal
    space within the root of the tooth
  47. apical foramen
    hole at the base of each root where blood vessels and nerves enter/exit
  48. alveolar process
    tooth socket
  49. periodontal ligaments
    anchor tooth
  50. gomphosis
    joint of tooth in socket
  51. swallowing
    • aka deglutition
    • process that moves bolus from mouth to esophagus
    • requires saliva and mucus
    • 3 stages: voluntary, pharangeal, esophageal
  52. voluntary swallowing
    move bolus from mouth toward oropharynx
  53. pharangeal swallowing
    • bolus moves involuntarily from throat to esophagus
    • soft pallet rises and closes nose
    • epiglottis tips up and closes trachea
  54. esophageal swallowing
    bolus moves involuntarily through esophagus into stomach
  55. pharynx
    • throat
    • 3 subdivisions: nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
  56. nasopharynx
    • behind the nose
    • passageway for air only
  57. oropharynx
    • behind the mouth
    • passageway for air and food
  58. laryngopharynx
    • between oropharynx and trachea
    • passageway for air and food
  59. esophagus
    • collapsed tube directly behind trachea
    • connects throat to stomach
    • lined with mucus
    • movement occurs through peristalsis
  60. peristalsis
    • contaction of the muscularis that moves food
    • always strongest proximal/weakest distal
  61. stomach
    • muscular J shaped bag located on left side of abdominal cavity
    • tissue: simple columnar w/ goblet cells, gastric pits, gastric glands
  62. goblet cells
    cells in stomach that release mucus onto surface of tissue
  63. gastric pits
    entrance to gastric glands
  64. gastric glands
    • produce gastric juice components
    • 4 types of cells: chief cells, parietal cells, mucous cells, G cells
  65. chief cells
    • in gastric glands
    • produce pepsinogen and gastric lipase
  66. parietal cells
    • in gastric glands
    • produce HCl and intrinsic factor
  67. mucous cells
    • in gastric glands
    • produce mucus
  68. G cells
    • in gastric glands
    • produce gastrin
    • only in antrum
  69. mechanical digestion in stomach
    • series of mixing waves that occur q 20 sec
    • waves mix bolus w/ gastric juice to form chyme
    • mixing waves increase proximal to distal
  70. chyme
    bolus mixed with gastric juice
  71. chemical digestion in stomach
    • stomach pH is < 2.0 (to kill bacteria/microbes)
    • chemicals: HCl, gastric lipase, mucus, intrinsic factor, gastrin, pepsinogen
  72. HCl
    • chemical digestion in stomach
    • kills bacteria
    • denatures enzymes
    • stimulates release of hormones that release bile and pancreatic juice
  73. gastric lipase
    • chemical digestion in stomach
    • enzyme that digests fat
    • functions best at pH 6 or higher
    • digests milk fat in infants - useless in adults
  74. mucus
    • chemical digestion in stomach
    • coats stomach w/ 1" layer to prevent destruction of stomach by acid
  75. intrinsic factor
    • chemical digestion in stomach
    • needed for B12 absorption
  76. gastrin
    • chemical digestion in stomach
    • hormone that controls stomach emptying
  77. pepsinogen/pepsin
    • chemical digestion in stomach
    • pepsin: digests protein
    • pepsinogen: inactive form of pepsin
    • must be produced in inactive form since pepsin would eat chief cells (since cell is protein)
    • becomes pepsin when it contacts HCl
    • pepsin is only enzyme that will work in acid (primary structure)
  78. gastric juice production
    3 phases: reflex (cephalic), gastric, intestinal
  79. reflex (cephalic) phase
    • gastric juice production
    • begins when food is seen, smelled, thought about
    • controlled by MO and hypothalamus
  80. gastric phase
    • gastric juice production
    • controlled by hormones and ANS
    • food enters stomach and stretches stomach (stretch receptors)
    • raises pH (chemoreceptors)
    • receptors trigger nerves that cause release of gastric juice
    • stomach distends -> G cells release gastrin -> gastric juice
    • constricts cardiac sphincter, relaxes pyloric sphincter (contents can exit)
  81. intestinal phase
    • gastric juice production
    • chyme enters small intestine
    • causes release of 3 hormones: GIP, secretin, CCK
  82. GIP
    • gastric inhibitory peptide
    • slows production of gastric juice
  83. secretin
    slows production of gastric juice
  84. CCK
    • cholecystokinin
    • slows/stops stomach emptying
    • causes release of bile and pancreatic juice
  85. vomiting
    • forceable expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth
    • vomiting center is the MO
    • prolonged, excessive vomiting causes acid-base imbalance, ulcers in the esophagus, destruction of tooth enamel
  86. pancreas
    • endocrine and exocrine gland
    • large, long, flat
    • head, body, tail
    • located behind stomach along posterior wall
  87. islets of langerhans
    • endocrine portion of pancreas
    • produces insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide
  88. insulin
    decreases BGL
  89. glucagon
    increases BGL
  90. somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide
    metabolic hormones
  91. acini cells
    • exocrine portion of pancreas
    • produces 1.5qts of pancreatic juice daily
  92. pancreatic juice
    • made of water, salt, sodium, bicarb, enzymes
    • ph 7.1 - 8.2 (slightly alkalid)
    • released in response to CCK
    • functions:
    • --buffers acidic chyme as it enters small intestine
    • --stops digestive action of pepsin (pepsin needs acid)
    • --creates proper pH for digestion in small intestine
    • --alkaline pH is required to keep pancreatic enzymes alive (acid would denature)
  93. P amylase
    • pancreatic enzyme
    • starch -> sugar
  94. P lipase
    • pancreatic enzyme
    • lipids -> fatty acid + glycerol
  95. deoxyribonuclease
    • pancreatic enzyme
    • DNA -> sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base (A G C T)
  96. ribonuclease
    • pancreatic enzyme
    • RNA -> sugar, phosphate, nitrogen bases (A G C U)
  97. trypsinogen
    • pancreatic enzyme
    • inactive
    • contacts enterokinsase (small intestine enzyme) -> trypsin
    • breaks proteins into peptides
  98. chymotrypsinogen
    • pancreatic enzyme
    • inactive
    • contacts trypsin -> chymotrypsin
    • breaks proteins into peptides
  99. procarboxypeptidase
    • pancreatic enzyme
    • inactive
    • contacts trypsin -> carboxypeptidase
    • breaks peptides into amino acid
  100. liver
    • detoxes everything in the body
    • epigastric/R hypochondriac region, below diaphragm
    • largest/heaviest organ
    • tissue: dense irregular CT covered by peritoneum
    • 2 lobes: R and L
    • contains hepatic cells
    • contains sinusoids
  101. falicform ligament
    separates R and L lobes of the liver
  102. right liver subdivisons
    • quadratic
    • caudate
  103. hepatic cells
    • cells in the liver that produce bile, heparin, most blood proteins
    • store vitamins, minerals, glycogen (stored glucose)
  104. sinusoids
    • spaces in the liver
    • contain kuppfer cells
  105. kuppfer cells
    • destroy bacteria
    • break down toxins
    • remove old blood cels
  106. bile
    • browinsh green, slightly alkaline
    • 1 qt produced daily
    • composed of H20, bile salts, cholesterol, lipid, pigment (bilirubin), ions
    • function: emulsification of fat
  107. micelles
    • small gobules of fat after being broken down by bile
    • greater surface action for p. lipase
  108. gallbladder
    • sac off of R lobe of liver
    • function: stores and concentrates bile by reabsorbing H20
    • bile is released when CCK is present (as fat enters small intestine)
  109. common bile duct
    duct from liver to small intestine
  110. cystic duct
    duct from gallbladder to small intestine
  111. sphincter of oddi
    where common bile duct and cystic duct join
  112. bile pathway
    • fat enters intestine
    • fat in intestine: bile leaves gallbladder, enters cystic duct -> common bile duct -> intestine (sphincter is open)
    • no fat in intestine: bile leaves liver -> common bile duct -> cystic duct -> gallbladder (sphincter is closed)
  113. small intestine
    • 20ft long, 1" wide
    • 3 parts:
    • --duodenum - 1st foot
    • --jejunum - next 8 feet
    • --ileum - last 11 feet
    • tissue: simple columnar w/ goblet cells, crypts of lieberkuhn, brunners glands, panath cells, villi/microvilli
  114. crypts of lieberkuhn
    • located throughout entire small intestine
    • makes intestinal juice
  115. brunner's glands
    • found in duodenum
    • secrete alkaline fluid to help raise pH of entering chyme
  116. panath cells
    • in small intestine
    • secrete lysozyme to kill bacteria
  117. villi/microvilli
    fingerlike projections in small intestine that increase surface area of lining of intestion to make absorption more efficient
  118. mechanical digestion in small intestine
    • peristalsis - weaker than in stomach
    • segmentation
  119. segmentation
    • major mechanical process of small intestine
    • localized contractions in region that contains chyme
    • mixes chyme with intestinal juice
    • brings chyme into contact with intestinal wall for absorption
    • helped by plicae circulares
  120. plicae circulares
    • rings/bands in small intestine
    • allow chyme to spiral throughout intestine
  121. chemical digestion in small intestine
    • pancreatic enzymes break down carbs, lipids, proteins
    • 90% of all absorption occurs in small intestine
    • drugs/alcohol absorbed in stomach
    • H2O in small and large intestine
  122. enterohepatic circulation
    • bile salts released in duodenum reabsorbed in the ileum
    • move from intestine to blood back to liver
  123. colon
    • last 5 feet of AC
    • 2.5" diameter
    • tissue: simple columnar w/ goblet cells
  124. haustra
    pouches in the colon
  125. mechanical digestion in large intestine
    • peristalsis - weak/insignificant
    • haustral churning
    • mass peristalsis
  126. haustral churning
    haustra fill and contract to push contents through intestine
  127. mass peristalsis
    • strong contractions that begins in transverse colon and pushes contents to the rectum
    • initiated by gastrocolic reflex
  128. chemical digestion in large intestine
    • controlled by bacterial enzymes
    • bacteria breaks down waste, helps absorb vitamins, minerals, H20
  129. feces
    • anything not reabsorbed
    • reabsorption greatest in cecum and ascending colon
  130. diarrhea
    liquid feces frequently expelled because too little water reabsorbed
  131. constipation
    • dry, hard feces that is difficult to expel
    • too much water reabsorbed
  132. defacation
    • emptying the rectum
    • inhale, voluntarily contract abdomen/diaphragh, push
    • sphincter relaxes
    • if not expelled, contents remain in sigmoid colon until next mass peristalsis

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