NURS chapter 2.txt

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tammyreid
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63933
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NURS chapter 2.txt
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2011-02-03 16:36:21
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nurs 299
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  1. amylase
    an enzyme produced in the saliva and by the pancreas that breaks down carbohydrates for absorption
  2. amylopectine
    a type of starch that is formed in a branched structure
  3. amylose
    a type of starch that is formed in a straight chain
  4. aspartame
    nonnutritive sweetener made with two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid
  5. carbohydrate
    a macronutrient containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with 4 kcalories/gm
  6. complex carbohydrates
    a form of carbohydrate that contains more than three sugar molecules
  7. dietary fiber
    the indigestible carbohydrate found in plant cell walls and woody component
  8. disaccharides
    a type of simple carbohydrate that contains two sugar molecules
  9. diverticulosis
    a condition of the large intestine that is characterized by outpouching in the colon wall
  10. enrichment
    replacement of nutrients in a food that were lost during processing
  11. fiber
    a form of complex carbohydrates that is not digestible
  12. fortification
    addition of nutrients to a food that are not naturally occurring in the product
  13. functional fiber
    the indigestible carbohydrate that also has a physiological function, such as promoting laxation or reducing blood lipids
  14. galactosemia
    a genetic disorder that causes elevated blood galactose because of an enzyme deficiency
  15. glucagon
    a hormone that signals the breakdown of glycogen
  16. gluconeogenesis
    the synthesis of glucose from glycogen or protein
  17. glycemic index (GI)
    a measure of the rise in blood glucose 2 hours after consuming a portion of food containing 50 gm of carbohydrate
  18. glycogen
    the storage form of glucose present in the liver and muscle
  19. glycogenolysis
    the catabolism of glycogen to create glucose
  20. insoluble fiber
    fiber that is insoluble in water, such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin
  21. ketone bodies
    a by-product of incomplete fat metabolism that occurs during excessive fat catabolism because of insufficient carbohydrate availability
  22. lactose intolerance
    an intestinal condition caused by insufficient synthesis of the intestinal enzyme lactase needed to break down lactose
  23. laxation
    bowel movement
  24. monosaccharides
    a simple carbohydrate that contains one sugar molecule
  25. nonnutritive sweeteners
    sugar substitutes that contain no kilocalories
  26. nutritive sweeteners
    sugar substitutes that contain kilocalories
  27. polysaccharide
    a complex carbohydrate with many sugar molecules
  28. simple carbohydrates
    a form of carbohydrate that contains less than three sugar molecules
  29. soluble fiber
    fiber that is insoluble in water, such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin
  30. starches
    the storage form of carbohydrate in plants
  31. sugar alcohols
    a nutritive sweetener derived from sugar; examples include sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol
  32. total fiber
    the sum of dietary and functional fibers
  33. whole grain
    grains that have not been overly processed and still retain the germ and bran

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