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What is a heterogeneous solution?
A solution with components that have observable boundaries, i.e. sand in water.
What is a homogenous solution?
Soultion that is uniform in appearance, with no observable boundaries, i.e. sweet tea.
How much solute can be dissolved in a given emount of solvent.
What is another word for solvation? Define it.
Dissolution. Action of components dispersing at a molecular level.
The measure of the dispersal of energy in a system. The more spread out = the higher entrophy.
What are the energetics required for a solution to form?
-ΔH mix >= ΔH solvent + ΔH solute
-Sometimes ΔH mix can be less than ΔH solvent + ΔH solute, but would depend on the intermolecular forces in the solvent & solute.
When is a reaction exo- or endothermic?
- ΔH mix > ΔH solvent + ΔH solute then reaction is exothermic
- ΔH mix < ΔH solvent + ΔH solute the reaction is endothermic.
What is a saturated solution?
Solution where undissolved solute is in equilibrium with dissolved solute.
What is a supersaturated solution?
A solution that has more solute dissolved than solubility will allow - usually because of increased temperatures.
What is an isothermic reaction?
Reaction where ΔH mix = ΔH solvent + ΔH solute.
What needs to be considered for any process to occur?
Enthalphy and entrophy.
What is the formula for molality?
m = mol solute/kg. solvent
What is the formula for mole fraction? Mole percent?
χ = mol solute/(mol solute + mol solvent)
mol % = mol solute/(mol solute + mol solvent) * 100
What is the formula for parts by mass? Also applies to volume.
mass solute/mass solution * multiplication factor
- percent by mass (%): 100
- ppm: 106
- ppb: 109
What are the colligative properties?
- Vapor pressure lowering
- Freezing point depression
- Boiling point elevation
- Osmotic pressure
Define colligative property.
A property that depends on the number of particles in a solution, not on the type of particle.
What is the formula used when both solute and solvent are volatile?
P soln = χ solv ( P0 solv)
What is the formula to determine boiling point elevation and freezing point depression?
Tb = imKb and Tf = imKf
What is the formula to determine osmotic pressure?
π = iMRT