Respiratory - Physio
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bluish discoloration of skin/membranes due to low oxygen content of BS
accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity, leading to difficulty w/inspiration
Cause of pleural effusion
Why does inflammation of the central part of diaphragm cause referred pain to the shoulders?
supplied by phrenic nerve which also supplies to scapula
M3 receptors - causes bronchoconstriction
beta-2 receptors - causes bronchodilation
What defines a bronchiole?
- diameter <1mm
- alveolar sacs
- exchange of gases
- consists of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveolar sacs
- transports gases
- consists of trachea, bronchi, bronchial tree
What are type I pneumocytes?
large, flat cells that form the thin gas diffusion barrier
What are type II pneumocytes?
produce surfactant to reduce alveolar surface tension and thereby prevent collapse
How does gas exchange occur in the lungs?
simple diffusion via respiratory membrane
Components of the respiratory membrane
alveolar and capillary membranes
Fick's Law of Diffusion
Rate of diffusion = (SA * Partial Pressure difference)/Distance (thickness of membrane)
How does pneumonia effect diffusion?
membrane thickness increases due to consolidation (filling of alveoli/small airways w/inflammatory exudates) and diffusion decreases
How does emphysema effect gas exchange?
there is destruction of alveoli, therefore SA is decreased, thereby diffusion of gases is decreased
Dust cells (PAM - pulmonary alveolar macrophages)
ingest particles <2 micrometers in diameter
- secretions contain IgA to help in resisting infections
- epithelium also contains prostaglandins protective to epithelial cells
Central airways - trachea and bronchi
have cartilaginous support - stiffer - greater air velocity - more turbulent flow
Peripheral airways - bronchioles
have smooth muscles - more compliant - parallel arrangement - lesser resistance - lower velocity - less turbulent flow
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