sgu vet histo1 set2-6

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sgu vet histo1 set2-6
2010-02-08 20:43:19
sgu vet histo1 set2 6

nervous system
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  1. what gives an animal the ability to respond appropriately to changes in its environment
    nervous system
  2. what are the components of nervious tissue (2)
    • neurons
    • neuroglia (support)
  3. what part of the nervous system does the brain and spinal cord consist of
    central nervous system
  4. components of the central nervous system (2)
    • brain
    • spinal cord
  5. what part of the nervous system does the cranial and spinal nerves consist of
    peripheral nervous system
  6. components of the peripheral nervous system (2)
    • cranial nerves
    • spinal nerves
  7. what innervates the visceral organs
    autonomic nervous system
  8. what does the autonomic nervous system innervate
    visceral organs
  9. what are layers that surround the CNS and the roots of the peripheral nerves
  10. what do the meninges surround (2)
    • CNS
    • roots of the peripheral nerves
  11. what is present in the cavities of the brain and spinal cord aind in the space within the meninges
    cerebrospinal fluid
  12. where is cerebrospinal fluid present (3)
    • cavities of the brain
    • cavities of the spinal cord
    • spaces within the meninges
  13. what is the structural and functional units of teh nervous system
  14. composition of a neuron (2)
    • cell body (perikaryon)
    • processes (axon and dendrites)
  15. what are the classifications of neurons (3)
    • multipolar
    • bipolar
    • unipolar
  16. structure of multipolar
    1 axon, several dendrites
  17. structure of bipolar
    1 axon, one dendrite
  18. where can bipolar neurons be found
    bipolar cells of the retina
  19. structure of unipolar
    1 process (axon) that bifurcates into central and peripheral branches
  20. where are unipolar neurons found
    sensory ganglia
  21. what is another name for unipolar neurons
    pseudopolar neuron
  22. staining of the nerve cell body
    relatively euchromatic (high protein synthesis)
  23. what is another name for nerve cell body
  24. what is a perikaryon
    a neuron's cell body
  25. how does a nucleus present in an neuron
    • nucleus centrally located (or eccentrically in autonomic ganglia)
    • prominent nucleolus
    • sex chromatin (bar body) may be present in cats and rodents
  26. what is nissl substances
    aggregation of rER and ribosomes in neurons
  27. what does the cytoplasm present in neurons that make it chromatophilic (6)
    • nissl substances
    • neurofilaments
    • microtubles
    • prominent golgi complex
    • mitochondria
    • lipofuscin pigments
  28. what do dendrites of neurons lack that should normally be there
    golgi bodies as it does not need to secrete anything in this area of the cell
  29. how are synaptic sites distinguished
    by a thick band of electron-dense material associated with plasmalemma
  30. what are the types of synaptic sites of a dendrite (2)
    • electron dense plate
    • dendritic spines (gemmules)
  31. what is a gemmule
    a membrane sac of a dendrite that projects out to attach to an axon
  32. what is a projection of a dendrite that connects to an axon with a membrane sac
    gemmule or dendritic spine
  33. where does an axon originate
    axon hillock
  34. what is the distal part of an axon
  35. what is a telodendrite
    the terminal/distal end of an axon
  36. what is a terminal bulb
    at the end of the axon where neurotransmitter molecules are packaged and stored within a synaptic vesicle
  37. where do neurotransmitter molecules get packed and stored within synaptic vesicles
    terminal bulb
  38. what can go out of an axon's terminal end (3)
    • neurotransmitter
    • neuromodulator
    • neurohormone
  39. what is a neuromodulator
    agents that augment neurotransmitter effect
  40. what are neurohormones
    oxytocin and vasopressin in hypothalamic neurons
  41. what are synapses (2)
    • sites where contact occurs between 2 neurons or
    • between neurons and other effector cells (muslce or glands)
  42. what makes up a synapse (3)
    • presynaptic terminal (telodendron)
    • synaptic cleft (intercellular space)
    • post synaptic terminal (gemmules)
  43. what are the types of synases (3)
    • axo-somatic (axon -> nerve cell body)
    • axo-dendritic (axon -> dendrite)
    • axo-axonic (axon -> axon)
  44. what connects axon to nerve cell body
  45. what connects axon to dendrite
  46. what connects axon to axon
  47. what are the structural and functional support for neurons
    neuroglial cells or gliocytes
  48. what types of neuroglial cells are in the CNS (4)
    • astrocytes
    • oligodendrocytes
    • microglial cells
    • ependymal cells
  49. what do astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglial cells and ependymal cells do
    neuroglial cells for the CNS
  50. what was microglial cells derived from
  51. what was astrocytes derived from
  52. what was oligodendrocytes derived from
  53. what was ependymal cells derived from
  54. what neuroglial cell supports the PNS
    neurolemmocytes (Schwann cells)
  55. what is another name for schwann cells
  56. what neurons do schwann cells support
    PNS neurons
  57. what do neurolemmocytes do
    myelinate axons and become a satellite cell in ganglia
  58. what are neurolemmocytes derived from
    the neural crest
  59. what is the largest and most neumerous neuroglial cell
  60. staining of astrocytes
    silver stain
  61. structure of astrocytes
    star shaped cell with multiple radiating processes that contain glial filaments
  62. function of astrocytes (2)
    • provide structural support by binding neurons to capillaries and to the pia mater
    • helps maintain the lectrolyte balance in teh CNS
  63. in white matter what are astrocytes called
    fibrous astrocytes
  64. what are fibrous astrocytes
    astrocytes in white matter
  65. in grey matter what are astrocytes called
    protoplasmic astrocytes
  66. what are protoplasmic astrocytes
    astrocytes in the grey matter
  67. what do end feet of astrocytes do
    cover the endothelium of blood vessels in the brain and spinal cord to form the blood-brain barrier
  68. what has simmilar functions as neurolemmocytes in the CNS
  69. what do oligodendrocytes do
    in the CNS, they have a few small processes that wroap around the axons producing a myelin sheath to give electrical insulation
  70. what has simmliar properties as schwann cells in the CNS
  71. what are the spaces in between myelin sheaths called
    nodes of Ranvier
  72. what is the myelin sheath between nodes called
  73. what are phagocytic cells of the nervous system
    microglia or microglial cells
  74. where are microglia dervied from
    bone marrow
  75. function of microglial cells
    phagocytosis in the CNS
  76. fuction of ependymal cells
    facilitate the movement of cerebrospinal fluid
  77. what facilitates the movement of cerebrospinal fluid
    ependymal cells
  78. structure of ependymal cells (2)
    • ciliated
    • cuboidal or columnar in shape
  79. location of ependymal cells
    lining the ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord
  80. what is the endoneurium
    a thin layer of connective tissue fibers surrounding a nerve fiber
  81. consistancy of a nerve fiber (3)
    • axon
    • neurolemmocytes
    • endoneurium
  82. in order of biggest to smallest what how is a peripheral nerve structured
    • epineurium (holds together perineurium)
    • perineurium (hold a bunch of endoneurium)
    • endoneurium (holds an axon)
    • axon (afferent or efferent)
  83. what is a aggregations of nerve cell bodies in the PNS
  84. what is a ganglia
    an aggregation of nerve cell bodies in the PNS
  85. what are the 2 types of ganglia (2)
    • sensory ganglia
    • autonomic ganglia
  86. what are sensory ganglia (3)
    • associated with crainal nerves (cranial ganglia) or with dorsal root of spinal nerve (spinal ganglia)
    • neurons are unipolar
    • cell bodies are tightly encapsulated by ganglionic gliocytes (satellite cells)
  87. what are autonomic ganglia (5)
    • accumulations of multipolar nerve cell bodies that run along automomic nerves
    • centrally palced or eccentric nuclei
    • marginally distributed nissl granules
    • loosely encapsulated by ganglionic gliocytes
    • found in visceral tissue brain and spinal cord
  88. what is the process of nerve repair (3)
    • 1. injury: nissl bodies move to site of injury, due to injury of nerve, innervated muscle shows atrophy. nerve fiber distal to injury degenerates
    • 2. regen in progress: schwann cells proliferate, axson grows, muscle fiber atrophied
    • 3. regen successful: muslce fiber regen, nissl bodies return to cell body
  89. what are the types of recptors by location (3)
    • exteroreceptors (body surface)
    • enteroreceptors (viscera)
    • proprioceptors (musculoskeletal structures)
  90. what receptor deals with the body surface
  91. what receptor deals with viscera
  92. what receptor deals with musculoskeletal structures
  93. what types of receptors by the type of stimulus (3)
    • mechanoreceptors
    • chemoreceptors
    • thermoreceptors
  94. what are the types of receptors anatomically (2 sets)
    • nonencapsulated receptors:
    • -free nerve ending
    • -tactile corpuscles
    • encapsulated receptors:
    • -encapsulated tactile (Meissner's) corpuscles
    • -lamellar (Paccinian) corpuscles
    • -Bulbous (Krause's) or genital corpuscles
    • -neurotendinous and neuromuscular spindles
  95. what are the encapsulated receptors (4)
    • Encapsulated tactile (Meissner’s) corpuscles,
    • Lamellar (Paccinian) corpuscles,
    • Bulbous (Krause’s) or genital corpuscles,
    • Neurotendinous and neuromuscular spindles.
  96. what are the nonencapsulated receptors (2)
    • Free nerve ending,
    • Tactile corpuscles
  97. what consists of presynaptic neuronal end plate overlaying a postsynaptic muslce sole plate
    neuromuscular synapse (efferent terminations)
  98. how big is the neuromuscular gap
  99. what is a motor end plate
    formed by very short branches within a circumscribed zone (plate) at the end of one terminal branch of a n efferent neuron.
  100. where does a motor end plate rest on
    muscle sole plate
  101. what does the moter end plate cytoplasm contain (2)
    • mitochondria
    • synaptic vesicles containing acetylcholine
  102. what does acetylcholine do
    • gets released at the active sites
    • diffuses across the neuromuscular gap
    • binds to postsynaptic receptor site
    • leads to muscle fiber depolarization
  103. what is a neurolemmocyte
    support cells (like shwann cells) that holds the axon to the muscle
  104. what does the grey matter of the spinal cord contain
    nerve cell bodies
  105. what does the ventral grey matter contain
    efferent neurons
  106. what does the dorsal grey matter contain
  107. what does the lateral grey matter contain
    sympathetic neurons
  108. what does white matter contain
    processes (axons)
  109. what are the parts of white matter (2)
    • dorsal, ventral and lateral funiculi
    • ascending and descending tracts
  110. what is the central canal of the CNS lined with
    ependymal cells
  111. what are the canals in the white matter called (2)
    • dorsal median septum
    • ventral median fissure
  112. histologically, what are the layers of the cerebral cortex (6)
    • -most superfical to most deep
    • molecular layer
    • ext. granular layer
    • ext. pyramidal layer
    • int. granular layer
    • int. pyramidal layer
    • fusiform layer
  113. where are the 6 layers of the cerebral cortex found
    grey matter
  114. define the molecular layer in the cerebral cortex
    composed of processes of the stellate or pyramidal neurons (neuropil), arranged tangentially
  115. what does the ext. granular layer in the cerebral cortex composed of
    small pyramidal neurons
  116. define the ext. pyramidal layer of the cerebral cortex
    small and medium pyramidal neurons
  117. define the int. granular layer of the cerebral cortex
    small stellate neurons
  118. define the int. pyramidal layer
    med to large pyramidal neurons that send axons into the white matter
  119. define the fusiform layer
    many spindle shaped neurons
  120. what differentiates the medulla and the spinal cord
    they're the same thing structurally, spinal cord is caudal to foramen magnum and the medulla is cranial
  121. what are gyri and sulci in the cerebral cortex
    gyri = ridges, sulci = grooves
  122. what is the white matter composed of in the cerebral cortex
    nerve fibers going to and coming from the cortex
  123. in relation to their gray and white matter, does the cerebellum and spinal cord have the same orientation
    no, in the spinal cord, the gray matter is on the inside and white on the outside, in the cerebellum the white matter is on the inside and the grey matter is on the outside
  124. structure of the celrebellum
    • outer grey
    • inner white
    • highly folded (folia)
    • 3 layers (outer molecule layer, purkinje cell layer, inner granule layer)
  125. what are the layers of the cerebellum (3)
    • outer molecular layer: neuropil arranged horizontally
    • inner granular layer: densely packed small neurons with intensely stained nuclei
    • intermediate purkinje cell layer: single layer of piriform cells, sends their ramified dendrites into molecular layer, axons into white matter.
  126. what is the white matter composed of in the cerebellum
    the nerve fibers of the cortex
  127. what do purkinje cells in the cerebellum send to the white matter and what do they send to the molecular layer (2)
    • white matter: axons
    • molecular layer: ramified dendrites
  128. what is the sequence, from superficial to deep, of the meninges' layers
    • dura mater (pachymenix)
    • arachnoid
    • pia mater
  129. together, arachnoid and pia mater make up what
  130. including bone and the spaces, how is the meninges stratified (superfical to deep)
    • bone
    • epidural space
    • arachnoid
    • subarachnoid space (arachnoid trabecule)
    • pia mater
  131. where is the cerebrospinal fluid produced
    by the choroid plexuses in ventricles
  132. where is cerebrospinal fluid found normally
    subarachnoid space
  133. what is the function of cerebrospinal fluid
    provides physical protection to the brain and spinal cord