Horizontal plane that divides the body into superior(upper) and inferior portions. Plane at the waist or at any other level across the body
Vertical plane that divides the body into front and back portions
A vertical plane that divides the body into unequal left and right portions
Divides body into equAl left and right halves
Name the vertical plane(s)
Name the horizontal plane(s)
Refers to front or belly side of the organ or body
Refers to the back of the organ or body
What is the opposite of ventral?
Dorsal - refers tobthe back of organ or body
What is the opposite of dorsal?
Ventral- refers tothe front or belly side if organ or body
Situated in the front. On the front or forward part of an organ
Situated inthe back.
Uppermost, above, ot toward the head
Lowermost, below, toward the feet
The stomach is located _____ to the pancreas.
The pancreas is located _____ to stomach.
What is the opposite of anterior?
Posterior- situated in the back
What is the opposite of posterior?
Anterior- situated in the front
The lungs are located _____ to the diaphragm.
The stomach is located ______ to the diaphragm
Toeards the head
What is the opposite of cephalic?
Caudal- toward the lower part of the body
Towaed the lower part of yhe body
What is the opposite of caudal?
Cephalic- toward the head
Situated nearest the midlune or beginning of a body structure
The ______ end of the humerus forms part of the shoulder
situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure
the ______ end of the humerus forms part of the elbow.
what is the opposite of proximal?
distal - situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure
what is the opposite of distal?
promixal - situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure
direction toward or nearer the midline
The ______ ligament of the knee is near the inner surface of the leg.
what is the opposite of medial?
lateral - direction toward or nearer the side and away from the midline
direction toward or nearer the side and away from the midline.
The _______ ligment of the knee is near the side of the leg.
what is the opposite of lateral?
relating to, or having, two sides
frontal plane - divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
midsagittal plane - divided the body into equal left and right halves
transverse plane - divides the body into superior and inferior portions
what are the two major body cavities?
dorsal and ventral cavities which are spaces within the body that contain and protect internal organs
located along the back of the body and head contains organs of the nervous system that coordinate body functions and is divided into two: cranial cavity and spinal cavity
Are there any portions in the dorsal cavity if so what are they?
1. cranial cavity
2. spinal cavity
located along the front of the body, contains the body organs that maintain homeostasis. divided into 3: thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, and pelvic cavity
process through which the body maintains a constant internal enviornment
surrounds and protects heart and the lungs
a muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities
contains primarily the major organs of digestion
space formed by the hip bones and it contains primarily the organs of the reporductive and excretory systems
abdomino and pelvic cavities as a single unit
relating to the groin refers to the entire lower area of the abdoment
cranial cavity - part of dorsal cavity which is located within the skull, surrounds and protects the brain
thoracic cavity - a part of central cavity; protects the heart and lungs
dorsal cavity - consists of spinal cavity and cranial cavity
spinal cavity - surrounds and protects the spinal cord
located on the left and right side of the body and ocvered by the lower ribs
located above the stomach
located on the left and right sides near the inward curve of the spine
surrounds the umbilicus which is the belly button
belly button or navel
located on the left and right sides over the hip bones
located below the stomach
what are the names and abbreviations of the abdominal quadrants?
1. right upper quadrant (RUQ)
2. left upper quadrant (LUQ)
3. right lower quadrant (RLQ)
4. left lower quadrant (LLQ)
toward tail or lower part
back or toward back
natur or physcal
frontal plane which divides body into anterior and posterior portions
belly side of the body
back of the body
front or before
back or towards back
tail or lower part of the body
pertaining to the skull
multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place within the abdominal cavity
thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity or divides a space or organ
what are the layers of the peritoneum? (start with the outer)
outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the interior of the abdominal wall
inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity
relating to the internal organs
fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall
located behind the peritoneum
inflammation of the peritoneum
basic structural and functional units of the body
study of the anatomy physiology, pathology, and chemistry of the cell
tissue that surrounds and protects the contents of the cell by seperating them from its external enviornment
material within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus
formative material of cells
it is surrounded by the nuclear membrane is a structure within hte cell that has two important functions. 1. controls the actitivites of the cell 2. it helps the cell divide
what are the functions of the nucleus?
1. it controls the activities of the cell 2. it helps the cell divide
unspecialized cells tht are able to renew themselves for long period of time by cell division. under the right condition they can specialize with special functions
adult stem cells
undifferentiated cells found among differentiated cells in a issue or organ. primary role is to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found
somatic stem cells
another name for adult stem cell which are undifferentiated cells found among differentiated cells in a issue or organ. primary role is to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found
what is another name for adult stem cells?
somatic stem cells
not having a speacilized function or structure
having a specilized fucntion or structure
embryonic stem cells
undifferntiated cells that are unlike any specific adult cell
what do embryonic stem cells come from?
core blood found in the umbilical cord and placenta of a newborn infant. can be harvested and kept froze until needed for treatment purposes
fundamental phsical and functional unit of heredit
study of how genes are transferred from parents to their children and the role of genes in health and disease
specialist in genetics
complete set of genetic information of an individual
genetic structures located within the nucleus of each cell.
what are chromosomes made up of?
DNA molecules containing the body's genes.
any cell in the body except the gametes (sex cells)
how many chromosomes are in the somatic cells?
46 chromosomes arranged into 23 pairs. 22 are identical pairs of chromosomes. the 23rd consists of XX or XY.
sperm or egg, also known as a gamete, is the only cell that does not contain 46 chromosomes. girl and boy have 23 single choromosomes. in female one will be X chromo while male with have either X or Y
how many chromosomes are in the sex cells?
23 single chromosomes. female - one will be X chromo. male - one will be X or Y chromo.
what is another name for sex cell?
what is another name for gamete?
somatic cell mutation
change within the cells of the body. affect the individual but CANNOT be transmitted to the next generation
gametic cell mutation
change within the genes in a gamete (sex cell) that CAN be transmitted by a parent to his or her children.
manipulation or splicing of genes for schientific or medical purposes
what is an example of genetic engineering?
production of human insulin from modified bacteria
also known as ereditary disorder, is a pathological condition caused by an absent or defective gene
cystic fibrosis (CF)
genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digestive systems
down syndrome (DS)
genetic cariation that is associated wit characeristic facial appearance, learning disabilities and physical abnormalities such as heart valve disease
groud of herediatry bleeding disorders in which a blood clotting factor is missing. can have spontaneous hemorrhages or severe bleeding following an injury
huntington's disease (HD)
genetic disorder that is passed from parent to child. each child of a parent with this disease has 50 50 chance of getting it. causes nerve degeneration with symptoms that most often appear in midlife
group of genetic diseases that are characterized b progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement
genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylse is missing. can be detected by a blood test at birth and one can lead a normal life with proper diet. but if not discovered it can lead to mental retardation
gatal genetic disorder in which harmful quantities of a fatt substance build up in tissues and nerve cells in the brain. recessive gene so both parents need it for baby to get it
group or layer of similarly specialized cells that join together to perform certain specific functions.
what are the main types of tissue?
1.epithelial, connectice, muscle, and nerve
form a protectice covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body. also form glands.
specialized epithelial tissue that forms the epidermis of the skin and the surface layer of mucous membranes
outer layer of the skin
specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lyph vessels, body cavities glands, and organs.
support and connect organs and other body tissues.
what are the different types of connective tissue?
proveds protective padding, insulation, and support
what is adipose tissue?
loose connective tissue
sourrounds various organs and supports both nerve cells and blood vessels
liquid connective tissues
transport nutrients nd waste products throughout the body
what consists of liquid connective tissue?
blood and lymph
contains cells with the specialized ability to contract and relax
contains cells with the specialized ability to react to stimuli and to conduct electrical impulses
defective development , or the congenital absense, of an organ or tissue
incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to deficiency in the number of cells
change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other
abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs
enlargment of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the tissues
general increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in the size but NOT in the number of cells in the tissue
what is the difference between hyperplasia and hypertrophy?
hyperplasia - is the enlargement of an organ or tissue because of the number or cells; hypertrophy - increase of body part or organ but not cause of number of cells
what is the difference of hypertrophy and anaplasia?
anaplasia - there is a change in the strucuture of cells due to tumor formation in cancers; hypertrophy - increase in bulk of body part or organ due to increase in size not increase in cell numbers or because of tumor development
group of specialized epithelial cells that are capable of producing secretions
substance produced by a gland
what are the different types of glnds
1. exocrine glands 2. endocrine glands
secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body
hormones are secreted directly into the blood stream, which are then transported to organs and structures throughout the body
what do endocrine glands produce?
what is are the difference(s) between endocrin gland and exocrine gland?
exocrine gland - secrets chemicals into ducts; endocrine glands - secret hormones directly into blood stream
inflammation of a gland
malignant tumor that originated in glandular tissue
harmful, capale of spreading, and potentially life threatening
benign tumor that arises in, or resembles glandular tissue
not life threatening
abnormal softening of a gland
what is the opposite of adenomalacia?
adenosclerosis - abnormal hardening of a gland
any disease condition of a gland
abnormal hardening of a gland
what is the opposite of adenosclerosis?
adenomalacia - abnormal softening of a gland
surgical removal of a gland
study of the causes of diseases
disease-producing microorganism such as a virus
spread of a disease
pathogen is possibl present
any condition that is transmitted from one person to another either by direct or indirect contact with contaminated objects
any condition that is transmitted from one person to another either by direct or indirect contact with contaminated objects. also known as communicable disease
what is another name for communicable disease?
indirect contact transmission
situations in which a susceptible person is infected by contact with a contaminated surface
sread of a disease through contact with blood or other bldy fluids that are contaminated with blood
what are examples of bloodborne transmission?
HIV, hep B and most STD's
occurs through contact with contaminated respiratory droplets spread by a cough or sneeze.
what are examples of airborne transmission?
TB, flu, colds and measles
food-borne and waterborne transmission
caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or water that has not been properly treated to remove contamination or kill pathogens that are present.
spread of certain disease due to the bite of a vector (insects of animals such as flies, ticks, dogs etc)
what are the most common vectors and what do they transmit?
mosquitoes and they transmit malaria and west nile virus
specialist in the study of outbreak of diseas within a population group
refers to ongoing presence of a disease within a population, group or area
sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population, group or area
outbreak of a disease occuring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide
produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified
what a common example of a pandemic?
AID's which is worldwide
unfavorable response due to prescribed medical treatment
illness without known cause
peculiar to the individual
illness caused by living pathogenic organisms such s a bacteria and viruses
disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting
produces symptoms caused by detectable physical change in the body
abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth
existing at birth
can reselt in an anomaly or malformation such as the absence of a limb or the presence of an extra toe
deviation from what is regarded as normal
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
caused by the mothers consumption of alcohol durning pregnancy.