chap 2 med term. .txt

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chap 2 med term. .txt
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  1. Transverse plane
    Horizontal plane that divides the body into superior(upper) and inferior portions. Plane at the waist or at any other level across the body
  2. Frontal plane
    Vertical plane that divides the body into front and back portions
  3. Sagittal plane
    A vertical plane that divides the body into unequal left and right portions
  4. Midsagittal plane
    Divides body into equAl left and right halves
  5. Name the vertical plane(s)
    • Midsagittal plane
    • Sagittal plane
    • Frontal plane
  6. Name the horizontal plane(s)
    Transverse plane
  7. Ventral
    Refers to front or belly side of the organ or body
  8. Dorsal
    Refers to the back of the organ or body
  9. What is the opposite of ventral?
    Dorsal - refers tobthe back of organ or body
  10. What is the opposite of dorsal?
    Ventral- refers tothe front or belly side if organ or body
  11. Anterior
    Situated in the front. On the front or forward part of an organ
  12. Posterior
    Situated inthe back.
  13. Superior
    Uppermost, above, ot toward the head
  14. Inferior
    Lowermost, below, toward the feet
  15. The stomach is located _____ to the pancreas.
    Anterior
  16. The pancreas is located _____ to stomach.
    Posterior
  17. What is the opposite of anterior?
    Posterior- situated in the back
  18. What is the opposite of posterior?
    Anterior- situated in the front
  19. The lungs are located _____ to the diaphragm.
    Superior
  20. The stomach is located ______ to the diaphragm
    Inferior
  21. Cephalic
    Toeards the head
  22. What is the opposite of cephalic?
    Caudal- toward the lower part of the body
  23. Caudal
    Towaed the lower part of yhe body
  24. What is the opposite of caudal?
    Cephalic- toward the head
  25. Proximal
    Situated nearest the midlune or beginning of a body structure
  26. The ______ end of the humerus forms part of the shoulder
    Proximal
  27. distal
    situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure
  28. the ______ end of the humerus forms part of the elbow.
    distal
  29. what is the opposite of proximal?
    distal - situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure
  30. what is the opposite of distal?
    promixal - situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure
  31. medial
    direction toward or nearer the midline
  32. The ______ ligament of the knee is near the inner surface of the leg.
    medial
  33. what is the opposite of medial?
    lateral - direction toward or nearer the side and away from the midline
  34. lateral
    direction toward or nearer the side and away from the midline.
  35. The _______ ligment of the knee is near the side of the leg.
    lateral
  36. what is the opposite of lateral?
    medial
  37. bilateral
    relating to, or having, two sides
  38. 1?
    frontal plane - divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
  39. 2?
    midsagittal plane - divided the body into equal left and right halves
  40. 3?
    transverse plane - divides the body into superior and inferior portions
  41. what are the two major body cavities?
    dorsal and ventral cavities which are spaces within the body that contain and protect internal organs
  42. dorsal cavity
    located along the back of the body and head contains organs of the nervous system that coordinate body functions and is divided into two: cranial cavity and spinal cavity
  43. Are there any portions in the dorsal cavity if so what are they?
    • 1. cranial cavity
    • 2. spinal cavity
  44. ventral cavity
    located along the front of the body, contains the body organs that maintain homeostasis. divided into 3: thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, and pelvic cavity
  45. homeostasis
    process through which the body maintains a constant internal enviornment
  46. thoracic cavity
    surrounds and protects heart and the lungs
  47. diaphragm
    a muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities
  48. abdominal cavity
    contains primarily the major organs of digestion
  49. pelvic cavity
    space formed by the hip bones and it contains primarily the organs of the reporductive and excretory systems
  50. abdominopelvic cavity
    abdomino and pelvic cavities as a single unit
  51. inguinal
    relating to the groin refers to the entire lower area of the abdoment
  52. 1
    cranial cavity - part of dorsal cavity which is located within the skull, surrounds and protects the brain
  53. 2
    ventral cavity
  54. 3
    thoracic cavity - a part of central cavity; protects the heart and lungs
  55. 4
    abdominopelvic cavity
  56. 5
    pelvic cavity
  57. 6
    dorsal cavity - consists of spinal cavity and cranial cavity
  58. 7
    spinal cavity - surrounds and protects the spinal cord
  59. hypochondriac regions
    located on the left and right side of the body and ocvered by the lower ribs
  60. epigastric region
    located above the stomach
  61. lumbar region
    located on the left and right sides near the inward curve of the spine
  62. umbilical region
    surrounds the umbilicus which is the belly button
  63. umbilicus
    belly button or navel
  64. iliac regions
    located on the left and right sides over the hip bones
  65. hypogastric region
    located below the stomach
  66. what are the names and abbreviations of the abdominal quadrants?
    • 1. right upper quadrant (RUQ)
    • 2. left upper quadrant (LUQ)
    • 3. right lower quadrant (RLQ)
    • 4. left lower quadrant (LLQ)
  67. aden/o
    gland
  68. adip/o
    fat
  69. anter/o
    front
  70. caud/o
    toward tail or lower part
  71. cephal/o
    head
  72. cyt/o
    cell
  73. endo-
    within
  74. exo-
    out
  75. hist/o
    tissue
  76. -ologist
    specialist
  77. -ology
    study of
  78. path/o
    disease
  79. -plasia
    formation
  80. poster/o
    back or toward back
  81. -stasis
    control
  82. physi
    natur or physcal
  83. coronal plane
    frontal plane which divides body into anterior and posterior portions
  84. ventr
    belly side of the body
  85. -al
    pertaining to
  86. dors
    back of the body
  87. anter
    front or before
  88. -ior
    pertaining to
  89. poster
    back or towards back
  90. cephal
    head
  91. caud
    tail or lower part of the body
  92. cranial
    pertaining to the skull
  93. home/o
    constant
  94. abdomin/o
    abdomen
  95. pelv
    pelvis
  96. hypo-
    below
  97. chondr/i
    cartilage
  98. -ac
    pertaning to
  99. epi-
    above
  100. gastr
    stomach
  101. lumb
    lower back
  102. ili
    hip bone
  103. peritoneum
    multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place within the abdominal cavity
  104. membrane
    thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity or divides a space or organ
  105. what are the layers of the peritoneum? (start with the outer)
    • parietal peritoneum
    • visceral peritoneum
  106. parietal peritoneum
    outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the interior of the abdominal wall
  107. parietal
    cavity wall
  108. visceral peritoneum
    inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity
  109. visceral
    relating to the internal organs
  110. mesentery
    fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall
  111. retroperitoneal
    located behind the peritoneum
  112. retro-
    behind
  113. periton
    peritoneum
  114. -eal
    pertaining to
  115. peritonities
    inflammation of the peritoneum
  116. -itis
    inflammation
  117. cells
    basic structural and functional units of the body
  118. cytology
    study of the anatomy physiology, pathology, and chemistry of the cell
  119. cyt
    cell
  120. cell membrane
    tissue that surrounds and protects the contents of the cell by seperating them from its external enviornment
  121. cytoplasm
    material within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus
  122. -plasm
    formative material of cells
  123. nucleus
    it is surrounded by the nuclear membrane is a structure within hte cell that has two important functions. 1. controls the actitivites of the cell 2. it helps the cell divide
  124. what are the functions of the nucleus?
    1. it controls the activities of the cell 2. it helps the cell divide
  125. stem cells
    unspecialized cells tht are able to renew themselves for long period of time by cell division. under the right condition they can specialize with special functions
  126. adult stem cells
    undifferentiated cells found among differentiated cells in a issue or organ. primary role is to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found
  127. somatic stem cells
    another name for adult stem cell which are undifferentiated cells found among differentiated cells in a issue or organ. primary role is to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found
  128. what is another name for adult stem cells?
    somatic stem cells
  129. undifferentiated
    not having a speacilized function or structure
  130. differentiated
    having a specilized fucntion or structure
  131. embryonic stem cells
    undifferntiated cells that are unlike any specific adult cell
  132. what do embryonic stem cells come from?
    core blood found in the umbilical cord and placenta of a newborn infant. can be harvested and kept froze until needed for treatment purposes
  133. gene
    fundamental phsical and functional unit of heredit
  134. genetics
    study of how genes are transferred from parents to their children and the role of genes in health and disease
  135. gene-
    producting
  136. -itics
    pertaining to
  137. geneticist
    specialist in genetics
  138. genome
    complete set of genetic information of an individual
  139. choromosomes
    genetic structures located within the nucleus of each cell.
  140. what are chromosomes made up of?
    DNA molecules containing the body's genes.
  141. somatic cell
    any cell in the body except the gametes (sex cells)
  142. how many chromosomes are in the somatic cells?
    46 chromosomes arranged into 23 pairs. 22 are identical pairs of chromosomes. the 23rd consists of XX or XY.
  143. sex cell
    sperm or egg, also known as a gamete, is the only cell that does not contain 46 chromosomes. girl and boy have 23 single choromosomes. in female one will be X chromo while male with have either X or Y
  144. how many chromosomes are in the sex cells?
    23 single chromosomes. female - one will be X chromo. male - one will be X or Y chromo.
  145. what is another name for sex cell?
    gamete
  146. what is another name for gamete?
    sex cell
  147. somatic cell mutation
    change within the cells of the body. affect the individual but CANNOT be transmitted to the next generation
  148. gametic cell mutation
    change within the genes in a gamete (sex cell) that CAN be transmitted by a parent to his or her children.
  149. genetic engineering
    manipulation or splicing of genes for schientific or medical purposes
  150. what is an example of genetic engineering?
    production of human insulin from modified bacteria
  151. genetic disorder
    also known as ereditary disorder, is a pathological condition caused by an absent or defective gene
  152. cystic fibrosis (CF)
    genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digestive systems
  153. down syndrome (DS)
    genetic cariation that is associated wit characeristic facial appearance, learning disabilities and physical abnormalities such as heart valve disease
  154. Hemophilia
    groud of herediatry bleeding disorders in which a blood clotting factor is missing. can have spontaneous hemorrhages or severe bleeding following an injury
  155. huntington's disease (HD)
    genetic disorder that is passed from parent to child. each child of a parent with this disease has 50 50 chance of getting it. causes nerve degeneration with symptoms that most often appear in midlife
  156. degeneration
    worsening condition
  157. muscular dystrophy
    group of genetic diseases that are characterized b progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement
  158. phenylketonuria (PKU)
    genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylse is missing. can be detected by a blood test at birth and one can lead a normal life with proper diet. but if not discovered it can lead to mental retardation
  159. tay-sachs disease
    gatal genetic disorder in which harmful quantities of a fatt substance build up in tissues and nerve cells in the brain. recessive gene so both parents need it for baby to get it
  160. tissue
    group or layer of similarly specialized cells that join together to perform certain specific functions.
  161. what are the main types of tissue?
    1.epithelial, connectice, muscle, and nerve
  162. hist-
    tissue
  163. epithelial tissues
    form a protectice covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body. also form glands.
  164. epithelium
    specialized epithelial tissue that forms the epidermis of the skin and the surface layer of mucous membranes
  165. epidermis
    outer layer of the skin
  166. endothelium
    specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lyph vessels, body cavities glands, and organs.
  167. connective tissues
    support and connect organs and other body tissues.
  168. what are the different types of connective tissue?
    dense connective tissues, adipose tissue, loose connective tissue, liquid connective tissues
  169. dense connective tissues
    form the joints and framework of th body
  170. what are examples of connective tissue?
    bone and cartilage
  171. adipose tissue
    proveds protective padding, insulation, and support
  172. what is adipose tissue?
    fat
  173. adip-
    fat
  174. -ose
    pertaining to
  175. loose connective tissue
    sourrounds various organs and supports both nerve cells and blood vessels
  176. liquid connective tissues
    transport nutrients nd waste products throughout the body
  177. what consists of liquid connective tissue?
    blood and lymph
  178. muscle tissue
    contains cells with the specialized ability to contract and relax
  179. nerve tissue
    contains cells with the specialized ability to react to stimuli and to conduct electrical impulses
  180. aplasia
    defective development , or the congenital absense, of an organ or tissue
  181. a-
    without
  182. hypoplasia
    incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to deficiency in the number of cells
  183. anaplasia
    change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other
  184. ana-
    excessive
  185. dysplasia
    abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs
  186. hyperplasia
    enlargment of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the tissues
  187. hypertrophy
    general increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in the size but NOT in the number of cells in the tissue
  188. -trophy
    development
  189. what is the difference between hyperplasia and hypertrophy?
    hyperplasia - is the enlargement of an organ or tissue because of the number or cells; hypertrophy - increase of body part or organ but not cause of number of cells
  190. what is the difference of hypertrophy and anaplasia?
    anaplasia - there is a change in the strucuture of cells due to tumor formation in cancers; hypertrophy - increase in bulk of body part or organ due to increase in size not increase in cell numbers or because of tumor development
  191. gland
    group of specialized epithelial cells that are capable of producing secretions
  192. secretion
    substance produced by a gland
  193. what are the different types of glnds
    1. exocrine glands 2. endocrine glands
  194. exocrine glands
    secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body
  195. -crine
    secrete
  196. endocrine glands
    hormones are secreted directly into the blood stream, which are then transported to organs and structures throughout the body
  197. what do endocrine glands produce?
    hormones
  198. what is are the difference(s) between endocrin gland and exocrine gland?
    exocrine gland - secrets chemicals into ducts; endocrine glands - secret hormones directly into blood stream
  199. adentitis
    inflammation of a gland
  200. aden/o
    gland
  201. adenocarcinoma
    malignant tumor that originated in glandular tissue
  202. carcin
    cancerous
  203. -oma
    tumor
  204. malignant
    harmful, capale of spreading, and potentially life threatening
  205. adenoma
    benign tumor that arises in, or resembles glandular tissue
  206. benign
    not life threatening
  207. adenomalacia
    abnormal softening of a gland
  208. what is the opposite of adenomalacia?
    adenosclerosis - abnormal hardening of a gland
  209. adenosis
    any disease condition of a gland
  210. adenosclerosis
    abnormal hardening of a gland
  211. what is the opposite of adenosclerosis?
    adenomalacia - abnormal softening of a gland
  212. adenectomy
    surgical removal of a gland
  213. -ectomy
    surgical removal
  214. etiology
    study of the causes of diseases
  215. eti-
    cause
  216. pathogen
    disease-producing microorganism such as a virus
  217. transmission
    spread of a disease
  218. contamination
    pathogen is possibl present
  219. communicable disease
    any condition that is transmitted from one person to another either by direct or indirect contact with contaminated objects
  220. contagious disease
    any condition that is transmitted from one person to another either by direct or indirect contact with contaminated objects. also known as communicable disease
  221. what is another name for communicable disease?
    contagious disease
  222. indirect contact transmission
    situations in which a susceptible person is infected by contact with a contaminated surface
  223. bloodborne transmission
    sread of a disease through contact with blood or other bldy fluids that are contaminated with blood
  224. what are examples of bloodborne transmission?
    HIV, hep B and most STD's
  225. airborne transmission
    occurs through contact with contaminated respiratory droplets spread by a cough or sneeze.
  226. what are examples of airborne transmission?
    TB, flu, colds and measles
  227. food-borne and waterborne transmission
    caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or water that has not been properly treated to remove contamination or kill pathogens that are present.
  228. vector-born transmission
    spread of certain disease due to the bite of a vector (insects of animals such as flies, ticks, dogs etc)
  229. what are the most common vectors and what do they transmit?
    mosquitoes and they transmit malaria and west nile virus
  230. epidemiologist
    specialist in the study of outbreak of diseas within a population group
  231. dem
    population
  232. epi-
    above
  233. endemic
    refers to ongoing presence of a disease within a population, group or area
  234. epidemic
    sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population, group or area
  235. pandemic
    outbreak of a disease occuring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide
  236. pan-
    entire
  237. functional disorder
    produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified
  238. what a common example of a pandemic?
    AID's which is worldwide
  239. iatrogenic illness
    unfavorable response due to prescribed medical treatment
  240. idiopathic disorder
    illness without known cause
  241. idi/o
    peculiar to the individual
  242. infectious disease
    illness caused by living pathogenic organisms such s a bacteria and viruses
  243. nosocomial infection
    disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting
  244. organic diorder
    produces symptoms caused by detectable physical change in the body
  245. congenital disorder
    abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth
  246. congenital
    existing at birth
  247. developmental disorder
    can reselt in an anomaly or malformation such as the absence of a limb or the presence of an extra toe
  248. anomaly
    deviation from what is regarded as normal
  249. fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
    caused by the mothers consumption of alcohol durning pregnancy.
  250. geriatrics
    study of the medical problem and care of the aged
  251. gerontology
    medical problem and care of the aged

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