Infants weight falls between 90th ad 10th percentile for gestational age
Appropriate for gestational age
Edema of the newborn scalp which is present at birth, may cross suture lines and is caused by head compression against the cervix
Collection of blood between the periosteum and the skull of a newborn; appears several hours to a day after birth, does not cross suture lines, and is caused by the rupturing of the periostealbridging veins due to friction ans pressure durin l and d
Surgical removal of the prepuce or foreskin which covers the glans penis
Excessive heat loss
Loss of heat by the direct contact with a cooler object
Loss of heat by movement of air
Failure of one or both testes to descend
Congenital chromosomal abnormality also called trisomy 21
Placement of the urinary Meatus on top of the penis
Small, whitish yellow epitheal cysts found on the hard plate
Pink rash with firm, yellow white Palouse or pustules found on the chest, abd, or butt of a new born
Erythema toxcum neonatorum
Loss of heat when water is changed to a vapor
Watery first milk from the breast, high I lactose, like skim milk, and effective in quenching thirst
Placement of the greater toe farther from other toes
Follows foremilk, is higher in fat content leads to weight gain and more satisfying
Fluid around the testes in the scrotum
Excess bilirubin in the body
Placement of the urinary Meatus on the underside of the penis
Severe neurological damage resulting from a high keel of bilirubin
Fine hair covering the fetus body
Infants weight falls above the 90th percentile for gestational age
Large for gestational age
Fetal material stored in the fetal intestines
Saclike protrusion along the vertebral column filled with CSF and meninges
Pearly white cysts on the face
Shaping the fetal head to adapt p the mothers pelvis during labor
Large patches of bluish skin on the buttocks of dark skinned infants
Saclike protrusion along the vertebral column that is filled with spinal fluid, meninges, nerve roots and spinal cord
First few hours after birth where in the newborn makes changes to and stabilizes response and circulatory functions
Environment in which the newborn can maintain internal body temperature with min oxygen consumption and metabolism
Neutral thermal environment
Large reddish purplish birthmark usually found on te face or neck and does not blanch with pressure
Birthmark of enlarged superficial blood vessels, elevated and red in color
Metabolism of brown ft process of unique to the newborn
Inflammation of the newborns eyes that results from passing through the birth canal when a gonorrheal or chlamydial infection is present
Condition where in the opening in the foreskin is so small that it canny be pulled back over the glans
Blood tinged mucus discharge from the vagina
Of a newborn caused by the withdrawal of maternal hormones
Loss of heat by transfer to cooler near objects but not through direct contact
Infants weight falls below the 10th percentile for gestational age
Small for gestarional age
Failure of the vertebral arch to close
Spina bifida occulta
Fusion on two or more fingers or toes
A congenital deformity in which the foot and ankle are twisted inward and cannot be moved to a midline position also known
As club foot
Birthmark of dilated capillaries that blanch with pressure also called stork bite
How may the ears seem?
Irregular and against the head
What are perocious teeth?
Teeth at birtg we remove to prevent aspirarion
What may the baby secrete?
Witches milk and engorged breats and last 2 weeks
When is pseudomenstruation appear?
First week causes bu withdrawl of maternal hormones
If rooting doesn't occur what shud u do and wen shud it disappear?
Rub side of the face or chin, 3-4wks
When sucking doesn't happen what to do and when does it go away?
Touch the lip, 10 mo
When extrusion doesn't happen and wen disappear?
Touch tip of tongue, 4 mo
Palmer grasp? Disappear?
The baby shud grasp finger when touch palm, 4 mo and if they dont grab could mean frontal lobe lesion
Stepping and when stop?
Holding hands of baby and standing up to see if they step ther feet, 3 mo
Tonic neck or fencing?
Turnin neck to one side, extremities on that side extend on the opposite side they flex, 6-8 wks
Upon birth of the fetus head what is suctioned?
Oropharynx 1st abd nasopharynx next
Compression of the fetal chest during birth causes increased intrathoracic pressure
What is absorbed with the first day after birth?
Gaseous changes occur when the umbilical cord is clamped, mild asphyxia results and stimulates resp?
Prolong asphyxia causes what?
CNS resp depressant
Neonate enters an environment about 20 degree cooler than the uterine environment, this change stimulates respirations
Birth leads to auditory, visual and tactile stimuli
Ductus arteriousus does what?
Reverses blood floe, resulting in more blood through pulmonary arteries
Closure of the ducts arteriousus happens when?
24 hra and permanent in 3-4 wks
When does the foramen ovule close? And permanent?
Within minutes ans permanebt in appx 3 mo
What does the ducts venosus do?
Stops blood flow when cord is clamped an causes blood the blood to flow to the liver like adults
How is heat production increased in the infant?
Increased by metabolic rste, muscular activity, crying, metabolism of brown fat
How does the neonate maintain the heat?
Staying in a flexed position
How does hypoxia occur?
Metabolism of brown fat
With prolonged cold stress this causes what?
Resp distress may also result in?
Hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis and jaundice
What is the apgar score for?
Assess cardiopulmonary status, given immedistely after birth
When is the apgar score need no intervention?
8 or more
What does is mean with apgar score of 4-8?
Gentle stimulation and o2 administration is needed
Apgar score of 0-4?
Where and when are bands placed?
Asap after birth that are matching for mother and infant and on the infant ankle and wrist
When is vit k given and how?
IM 1 hour after
When is vit k start to synthesize? Why?
8 days after birth to prevent hemorrhage
When is the hep vaccine given?
12 hrs and requires consent
What is used to treat ophthalmia ?
Erythromycin ointment or tetracycline ointment
When is the cord clamped and cut?
When pulsating stops
What do we teach ab umbilical cord?
To put alcohol on it several times daily to dry it out.
Norm weight for neonate?
5lb 8oz - 8lb 13oz
What is neonate temp?
Heart rate of neonate?
Resp for neonate
Blue coloring of hands and feet
Edema is normal where on neonate?
Eyes, back of hands, legs, feet, labia/scrotum
Eye color is noted when?
When can jaundice appear?
With in 24 hr and resolves in few weeks
Bruising related to diff delivery
When does petechiae show?
RT difficult delivery
Baby acne, sebaceous glands, resolve with normal hygiene
Molding reolves when?
Caput succedaneum resolves?
When does stanismus eyes disappear?
Baby can be have what in mouth?
Percocious teeth, epsteins pearls, resolves in wks
Chest may appear how?
Engorged, witches milk
Respiration of quiet sleep?
First period of rest?
30 min, alert active, best bonding, sucking strong
Second period of rest?
4-6 hrs, awake and alert, v/s fluctuations,
what is rooting reflex? and if not present what can it determine?
stroking skin at one corner of infants mouth, the infant should turn head toward it, disppears 3-4 mo and cant indicate frontal lobe lesion
what is the sucking reflex? occurs when?
touching newborns lips, occurs up to 10 mo
if a mother is on barbiturates while breastfeeding what can this cause the baby to do?
it causes no sucking reflex in the baby due to CNS depression
extrusion reflex? when does it disappear?
when tip of the tongue is touched or depressed, the infant should force the tongue outward, disppears 4 mo of age
Palmar grasp? when does it disappear? and if not applicapable what is indicated?
when a finger is placed across the pal, the infants fingers flex and grasp, 4 mo it should be in affect and can indicate frontal lobe lesions.
when the infants leg is held in one hand and the planted surface of the foot is touhed below the toes with the other hand and the toes will curl downward, last until 8 mo of age. if absent with one foot obstructive lesions are suspected, with both feet neurological alterations such as cerebral palsy
tonic neck? or fencing?
lay baby supine and which ever way you face jaw the legs and arms should extend while the other side should flex, last 6 mo, if after cerebral damage is suspected. may not happe until 6-8 wks
when lying supine or semisitting with head 30 degree, you slap a side and the affected side the baby should extend and make a "C" while other side adducts with embracing motion, disappears 4-6 mo and if doesnt, could mean brain damage
when baby is prone with hands under abd and nurse strokes side of spine and baby should turn buttom and legs that way, if no repsonse spinal cord lesions suspected, present till 2 mo
newborn held under arm with feet placed on firm surface, infant should lift alternate feet as if walking, disappears 3 mo of age
when stroking the plantar surefave lateral heel area upward the greater toe should dorsiflex while other toes fan out, present after baby has mastered walking
crossed extension reflex?
supine holding one leg extended with the knee pressed down and stimulating the bottom of that foot, the other leg should flex, adduct and extend , present in 4 wks of birth
infant held under arms from behind then brought to a standing position, touching the dorsum of one foot to the edge of the table, the affected leg will lift on the table, breech babies and cerebral cortex diff may not respond
resp regular 100-120, stimuki wont alter newborn state
resp rapid, irregular, sucking, stretching, face movement
when must the gestational age be determined?
first 4 hrs after birth
on a baby assessment what should be assessed first and what for?
posture, should be flexed and for neuromuscular maturity
2 arteries 1 vein
what decreases SIDS?
what type of bath for first 10 days?
when can tub baths be used?
after cord falls off
how do we circumcise?
only full term babies, put 20% sucrose analgesic on pacifier, new ointment every 24-48 hrs
is light bleed ok for circumcision?
yes! may apply 4x4 if needed
how many wet diapers after circumcision
signs of hunger?
fussy, wide awake, sucking on hands, rooting
position for feeding?
cradle, foot ball, side lying or across the lap hold
appears after 24 hours caused by fetal bllod cells recycling
appears prior 24 hrs, can be avoided with rhogam shot or lead to kernicterus (retardation)
should we increase fluids for babies with jaundice?
who is associated with RDS?
preterm infants and surfactant deficiency
what is noted with nasal flaring and grunting?
Transient tachypnea of newborn, shortly after birth.
how should cleft lip babies sleep?
sac containing csf and meninges? how to treat this?
meningocele, and surgery, no long term effects
sac containing csf, meninges, nerves, spinal cord, how to treat?
myelomeningocele amd may cause paralysis
symptoms of trisomy 21?
short low set ears, broad neck, tansverse palmar crease, slanted eyes
what are down syndrome babies at increased risk for?
cardiac anomolies, GI defect, endocrine disorders and leukemia
Talipes Equinovarus or club foot?
where foot and ankle turn inward, may be able to correct and wear cast
what is necessary for production of surfactant?
when do withdrawl symptoms begin after birth for infant of substance abuse?