PSY491_Ch2_Glossary

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darwinguevarra
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64040
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PSY491_Ch2_Glossary
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2011-02-19 15:58:45
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Ch. 2: Research Methods
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  1. appetitive stimulus
    An event that an organism will seek out.
  2. aversive stimulus
    An event that an organism will avoid.
  3. baseline
    The normal frequency of a behavior before some intervention.
  4. case study approach
    A descriptive research approach that involves intensive examination of one or a few individuals.
  5. changing-criterion design
    A type of single-subject design in which the effect of the treatment is demonstrated by how closely the behavior matches a criterion that is systematically altered.
  6. comparative design
    A type of control group design in which different species constitute one of the independent variables.
  7. contingency
    A predictive relationship between two events such that the occurrence of one event predicts the probable occurrence of the other.
  8. control group design
    A type of experiment in which, at its simplest, subjects are randomly assigned to either an experimental (or treatment) group or a control group; subjects assigned to the experimental group are exposed to a certain manipulation or treatment, while those assigned to the control group are not.
  9. covert behavior
    Behavior that can be subjectively perceived only by the person performing the behavior. Thoughts and feelings are these types of behaviors.
  10. cumulative recorder
    A device that measures total number of responses over time and provides a graphic depiction of the rate of behavior.
  11. dependent variable
    That aspect of an experiment that is allowed to freely vary to determine if it is affected by changes in the independent variable.
  12. deprivation
    The prolonged absence of an event that tends to increase the appetitiveness of that event.
  13. descriptive research
    Research that focuses on describing the behavior and the situation within which it occurs.
  14. duration
    The length of time that an individual repeatedly or continuously performs a certain behavior.
  15. establishing operation
    A procedure that affects the appetitveness or aversiveness of a stimulus.
  16. functional relationship
    The relationship between changes in an independent variable and changes in a dependent variable; a cause-and-effect relationship.
  17. independent variable
    That aspect of an experiment that is made to systematically vary across the different conditions in an experiment.
  18. intensity
    The force or magnitude of a behavior.
  19. interval recording
    The measurement of whether or not a behavior occurs within a series of continuous intervals. (The number of times that it occurs within each interval is irrelevant.)
  20. latency
    The length of time required for a behavior to begin.
  21. multiple-baseline design
    A type of single-subject design in which a treatment is instituted at successive points in time for two or more persons, settings, or behaviors.
  22. naturalistic observation
    A descriptive research approach that involves the systematic observation and recording of behavior in its natural environment.
  23. overt behavior
    Behavior that has the potential for being directly observed by an individual other than the one performing the behavior.
  24. rate of response
    The frequency with which a response occurs in a certain period of time.
  25. response
    A particular instance of a behavior.
  26. reversal design
    A type of single-subject design that involves repeated alternations between a baseline period and a treatment period.
  27. satiation
    The prolonged exposure to (or consumption of) an event that tends to decrease the appetitiveness of that event.
  28. simple-comparison design
    A type of single-subject design in which behavior in a baseline condition is compared to behavior in a treatment condition.
  29. single-subject design
    A research design that requires only one or a few subjects in order to conduct an entire experiment.
  30. spatial contiguity
    The extent to which events are situated close to each other in space.
  31. speed
    A measure of how quickly or slow a behavior occurs, or the rapidity with which one progresses through some type of distance, e.g. the length of time it takes for a rat to run through a maze.
  32. stimulus
    Any events that can potentially influence behavior. (The plural for this ends with an -i)
  33. temporal contiguity
    The extent to which events occur close together in time.
  34. time-sample recording
    The measurement of whether or not a behavior occurs within a series of discontinuous intervals. (The number of times that it occurs within each interval is irrelevant.)
  35. topography
    The physical form of a behavior.
  36. variable
    A characteristic of a person, place, or thing that can change (vary) over time or from one situation to another.

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