Human Anatomy oral exam #2 part 1

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Author:
jsajulan
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64045
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Human Anatomy oral exam #2 part 1
Updated:
2011-02-04 00:52:05
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human anatomy
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Description:
review of the integumentary system, cytology, histology, and fingernail anatomy
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  1. Cytology
    Study of cells.
  2. Nucleus 
    Control center. Contains DNA that regulates cell activity. Contains the nucleolus.
  3. Nucleolus
    Within the nucleus. Contains RNA and makes ribosomes.
  4. Mitochondrion
    "Power House" of the cell. Double membraned organelle with folded inner layer membrane. Makes ATP.
  5. Cell membrane
    Surrounds the cell and determines what gets in or out. "Selective permability."
  6. Golgi Body or Golgi Complex
    Center for modifying, packaging, and sorting materials that arrive from the RER (Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum) for the lysosome.
  7. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    Extends throughout the cell and consists of the rough ER (RER) and smooth ER. Rough ER has ribosomes attached to them and it produces, stores, and tranports protiens. Smooth ER has no ribosomes (which is why they're smooth) and is involved in metabolic processes including the synthesis, tansport, and storge of lipids. Also detoxes drugs and alcohol.
  8. Ribosome
    Small bodies composed of RNA. This is where protiens are made. Can be attached to the ER making it rough (RER) or can be found in cytoplasim ("free ribosomes")
  9. Lysosome
    Contain digestive enzymes to break down cell parts or destroy entire cell.
  10. Centrioles
    During cell division, they migrate to opposite ends of the cell and produce microtubiles that become spindle apparatus to help pull the cell apart. In pairs they are called centrisomes.
  11. Mitosis
    Cell division
  12. Phases of mitosis
    IPMAT

    Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
  13. Interphase
    Not a stage of mitosis but is part of the cell cycle. Chromosomes not visible while nuclear membrane is visible. DNA is replicated.
  14. Prophase
    Nuclear envelope and nucleolus disappear, and chromatids become visible and form chromosomes. Centrioles begin migrating to opposite ends of the cell and develop spindle fibers.
  15. Metaphase
    Chromosomes line up at center (equitorial plate) and the spindle fibers attach to centromeres of the chromosomes
  16. Anaphase
    Chromosome halves (Chromatids) pull apart and begin moving to opposite ends of the cell.
  17. Telophase
    Chromatids arrive @ opposite ends and nuclear envelope forms. Creation of new daughter cell begins.
  18. Histology
    Study of tissues
  19. Four basic tissue types
    Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous.
  20. Epithelial tissue
    lines or covers internal and external body surfaces.
  21. 3 shapes of epithelial tissue
    cuboidal (cube), columnar (tall column/height), squamous (flat).
  22. simple
    one layer
  23. stratified
    more than one layer
  24. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Pseudostratified ciliated columnar.
  25. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
  26. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Pseudostratified ciliated columnar.
  27. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Simple ciliated columnar
  28. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Simple ciliated columnar
  29. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Simple columnar
  30. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Simple columnar
  31. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Simple cuboidal
  32. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Simple cuboidal
  33. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Simple squamous
  34. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Simple Squamous
  35. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Simple squamous
  36. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Stratified columnar
  37. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Stratified cuboidal
  38. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Stratified cuboidal
  39. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Stratified cuboidal
  40. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Stratifed squamous
  41. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Stratified squamous
  42. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Stratified squamous
  43. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Trasitional epithelial tissue
  44. Name the following epithelial tissue.

    Trasitional epithelial tissue
  45. Connective tissue
    Support, protect, and connect. Have living cells in a non-living matrix which is a background material in which the living cells are embedded.
  46. Types of connective tissue
    connective proper, cartilige, bone, blood.
  47. Loose connective tissue
    irregularly arranged fibroblasts and fibers.
  48. Elastin
    Loose connective tissue with thin fibers.
  49. Collagen
    Loose connective tissue with thick fibers.
  50. Adipose connective tissue
    "Fat cells" large and open with nucleus squashed out to the edge of cell.
  51. Dense regular connective tissue

    Parallel collagen fibers (White fibrous tissue) ex. tendon.
  52. Dense irregular connective tissue

    Found on joints and is a tendon sheath.
  53. Types of cartilage
    Hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage

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