Opportunistic Infections in HIV Patients

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  1. What are the CD4 breakpoints for Opportunistic Infection prophylaxis in HIV patients?
    • < 200:
    • Pneumocystis jiroveci
    • < 100:
    • Toxoplasma gondii
    • < 50:
    • MAC
    • CMV (also need to be CMV +)
    • Just secondary prevention :
    • Cryptococcus neoformans
  2. Which pathogens may cause Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) when starting a new ARV regimen?
    • Pneumocystis jiroveci
    • MAC
    • CMV
  3. What is the treatment for Pneumocystis jiroveci?
    • Bactrim IV 15-20mg/kg/d (high dose) QID x 21d
    • Pentamidine IV
    • Clindamycin + Primaquine (test for G-6PD deficient)
    • Dapsone + Trimethoprim
    • Atovaquone (mild cases only)
    • Adjuvant: methylprednisolone (change to prednisone after 3-4d)
  4. What is the prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jiroveci?
    • Bactrim PO
    • Pentamidine inhalation
    • Atovaquone
    • Dapsone
    • Dapsone + pyramthamine + Leucovorin
  5. What is the treatment for Toxoplasma gondii?
    • Pyramethamine + Leucovorin + Sulfadiazine
    • Pyramethamine + Leucovorin + Clindamycin
    • Bactrim
    • Atovaquone + Sulfadiazine
    • Atovaquone
    • Pyramethamine + Azithromycin
  6. What is the prophylaxis for Toxoplama gondii?
    • Bactrim
    • Atovaquone
    • Dapsone + Pyramethamine + Leucovorin
  7. What is the treatment for Cryptococcus neoformans?
    • [AMBd or LAMB] + Flucytosine x 2wks, then Fluconazole x 8wks
    • Fluconazole +/- Flucytosine (IF AMB intolerable)
    • Adjuvant: therapeutic lumbar taps
  8. What is the prophylaxis for Cryptococcus neoformans?
    • Fluconazole
    • Itraconazole
  9. What is the treatment for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)?
    Clarithrymycin + Ethambutol +/- Rifabutin continued indefinitely
  10. What is the prophylaxis for MAC?
    • Azithromycin
    • Clarithromycin
    • Rifabutin
  11. What is the treatment for CMV?
    • Ganciclovir
    • Valgancyclovir
    • Foscarnet
    • Ganciclovir retinal implant
    • Cidofovir + Probenecid (hydrate!)
  12. What is the prophylaxis for CMV?
    Valgancyclovir
  13. What is the treatment for Candida infections in HIV?
    • Fluconazole 100mg x 7-14d(oral infection)
    • Fluconazole 400mg x 14-21d (esophageal infection)
    • Nystatin
    • Clotrimazole troche
  14. What is the treatment for Fluconazole-resistant Candida infections in HIV?
    • Oral:
    • Itraconazole
    • AMBd
    • Esophageal:
    • Posaconazole
    • Voriconazole
    • Caspofungin
    • Micafungin
    • Anidulafungin
    • LAMB
  15. What is the treatment for Cryptosporidiosis?
    • Nitazoxanide
    • Paromomycin
    • Macrolides
  16. What is the treatment for microsporidiosis?
    Albendazole

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Author:
giddyupp
ID:
64046
Filename:
Opportunistic Infections in HIV Patients
Updated:
2011-02-04 16:49:16
Tags:
Opportunistic Infections HIV Patients PHPR523 Test2
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Opportunistic Infections in HIV Patients
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