Die 4 Fälle
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What is the subject of a sentence?
The subject is the acting person / thing in a sentence. The subject is "doing" something.
- example 1:• Der Mann geht nach Hause. (The man goes home.)
- You can ask who does something in the sentence? Who goes home? --> answer: der Mann
- 1.) Every subject is in the nominative case.
- Der Mann geht nach Hause.
- 2.) Every noun or pronoun which follows a form of "be" is in the nominative case.The noun / pronoun after the "be" is a so-called "predicate complement".
- Ich bin ein Student.
What is the direct object of a sentence?
The direct object is the not-acting person / thing in a sentence. The direct object receives the action of theverb.
Der Mann küsst die Frau.
The man is doing something. He kisses the woman. So the man is the subject of the sentence (=nominativecase).The woman is being kissed. She is not acting. So she is the direct object (=accusative case).
- 1.) The direct object is in the accusative case.
- 2.) Nouns / pronouns which follow accusative prepositions are in the accusative case.
- Accusative prepositionen
- • bis (till, to, by)
- • durch (through)
- • für (for)
- • gegen (against)
- • ohne (without)
- • um (around, to, at)
- 3.) Most time expressions are in the accusative case.
- • Ich gehe jeden Tag in die Schule. (I go every day to school.)
Nouns / pronouns which follow "two-way" prepositions are either inthe accusative case or the dative case.
- • an (at, on, to)
- • auf (at, on, to, upon)
- • hinter (behind)
- • in (in, into)• neben (beside, near, next to)
- • über (about, above, across, over)
- • unter (under, among)
- • vor (before, in front of, ago)
- • zwischen (between)
- When you can ask "Wohin?" (=whereto?) then the object is in the accusativecase. That means you describe a motion towards a destination.
- When you can ask "Wo?" (=where?) then the object is in the dative case.That means you describe a single location or a state of rest.
What is the indirect object of a sentence?
The indirect object is the beneficiary of the action in the sentence. Usually it's a person.You can also say the indirect object is the receiver of the direct object.
- Der Mann gibt dem Kind das Buch.- The man is doing something.
- He gives a book to the child. So the man is the subject of the sentence(=nominative case).- The book is given. It's not acting. So it's the direct object (=accusative case).- The child benefits from this action. After the action it owns a new book. So the child is the indirect object(=dative case).
- 1.) The indirect object is in the dative case.
- 2.) Nouns / pronouns which follow dative prepositions are in the dative case.Dative prepositionen
- • aus (from, out of)
- • außer (except for, besides)
- • bei (at, near)
- • gegenüber (across from, opposite)
- • mit (with, by)
- • nach (after, to)
- • seit (since, for)
- • von (from, by)
- • zu (at, to)
- 3.) Nouns / pronouns which follow "two-way" prepositions are either in theaccusative case or the dative case.
- 4.) Nouns / pronouns which follow "dative verbs" are in the dative case.
- 5.) Nouns / pronouns are in the dative case when they are used with certain adjective and adverb expressions.
- • antworten (answer)
- • bleiben (remain)
- • danken (thank)
- • einfallen (think of)
- • erlauben (allow)
- • fehlen (be missing)
- • gefallen (like)
- • gehören (belong to)
- • glauben (believe)
- • gratulieren (congratulate)
- • helfen (help)
- • Leid tun (be sorry)
- • passen (suit)
- • passieren (happen)
- • schmecken (taste)
- • vertrauen (trust)
- • verzeihen (forgive)
- • wehtun (hurt)
- • zuhören (listen to)
- • zustimmen (agree with)
Dative adjective and adverb
- • ähnlich (similar)
- • angenehm (pleasant )
- • bekannt (familiar )
- • böse (angry)
- • dankbar (grateful )
- • egal (all the same )
- • gleichgültig (indifferent )
- • klar (clear )
- • lästig (bothersome )
- • lieb (dear )
- • möglich (possible )
- • nützlich (useful )
- • peinlich (embarassing )
- • recht (OK )
- • unangenehm (unpleasant )
- • unbegreiflich (incomprehensible )
- • unbequem (unpleasant )
- • unerklärlich (unpleasant )
- • unklar (unclear )
- • unmöglich (impossible )
- • unnütz (impossible )
- • unverständlich (incomprehensible )
- • wichtig (important )
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