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At RMP is the Na inactivation gate open or closed?
At RMP is the Na activation gate open or closed?
During depolarization are the Na activation gates open?
yes as is the sodium inactivation gate
Absolute refractory period is due to what?
Na inactivation gates
Relative refractory period is due to what?
Slow K activation channels
Low levels of what cause Alzeimers?
Destruction of what is associated with Alzeimers?
Nucleus basalis/Basal telencephalon
What shape of sulci and gyri are associated with Alzeimers?
wide sulci and narrow gyri
How are catecholamines primarily eliminated from the synaptic cleft?
Norepinephrine is produced where?
Dopamine is produced where?
substantia niagra/ midbrain tegmentum in the mesencephalon
5HT is produced where?
Midbrain Raphe Nucleus
How are low levels of 5HT treated?
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
What cell eliminates glutamate in the Brain?
What effect does GABA have on CNS?
What other molecules potentiate its effects?
- Inhibitory...increases cl permeability..harder to depolarize...
- benzodiazopine(valium) all potentiate the effects of GABA
Aspartate is excitatory where?
in the Spinal Chord
Whats the first sign of Multiple Sclerosis?
Optic neuropathy in women in their 30's
In which hematoma are RBS found in CSF?
Huntington's in caused by a lesion where?
In the striatum, especially caudate
The myotatic reflex detects what type of movement?
what nerve fiber does it use?
The reverse myotatic reflex detects what type of movement?
What nerve fiber does it use?
- detects overcontraction---tension
Whats the most important UMN for antigravity reflex?
Lateral Ventral Nucleus...LVN
Where is the LVN located?
at the medulla level
What allows for antigravity reflex?
Axial extensor bias
Why is the ipsilateral vestibulospinal tract/Lateral Vestribulo Nucleus a powerful axial extensor bias system?
because there is no internuerons involved at the level of the LMN
What is the only UMN that doesnt have an interneuron?
Lateral Vestibulo Nucleus
How are lateral vestibulo nuclei, reticularis pontis oralis and reticularis pontis caudalis the same?
- Same-- all 3 are UMN's..axial extensor bias..antigravity muscles
- Diff---only LVN directly synapses unto a LMN..RPO and RPC have an interneuron..as a result are as not as powerful
What is the only UMN involved in the Antigravity reflex that is bilateral?
Reticularis Giganto Cellularis
Where is the Red nucleus located?
at the level of superior colliculi at the mesencephalon
What is the UMN that is contralateral and mediates proximal limb flexion?
Betz have direct input on LMN without interneurons where?
In the cervical chord
Why is there fine controlled movement in the distal part of the upper limb?
Because the Betz cells directly synapse unto LMN without interneurons?
What is the purpose of the Lateral cortico spinal tract?
Distal limb flexure
Cortico spinal tracts decassate where?
At the medulla/SC junction
What's present in the genu of the Internal capsule?
What are the LMN in the brainstem?
CN III, IV,V,VI,VII,IX,X,XI,XII
What UMN innervates the LMN in the brain stem?
Cerebral Cortex area IV
What are the UMN that directly project onto LMN?
- Ia autogenic excitation
- Lateral vestibular Nucleus LVN
- Betz cell unto distal flexors of upper limb
What are the tracts of Tectum that allow body to react with eyes to stimuli?
- Tectospinal tract
- medial longitudinual fasciculus
The corticospinal tracts come together where?
Interneurons are found in what lamina?
What are the UMN that are contralateral?
- Red nucleus
- Cerebral cortex
- The lumbar portion of the flexor-crossed extensor
- UMN to CN VII to lower face
Whats the difference between the corticospinal tr and the cortico bulbar tract?
- cortico spinal trat comes from cerebral cortex..area 4
- corticobulbar tract---UMN to LMN in the brain stem
- CN 3,4,5,6,7,9,10,11,12
In decerebrate rigidity which is the highest UMN that is disinhibted?
LVN..all limbs extended
In decorticate rigidity which is the highest UMN that is disinhibited?
Red nucleus---proximal limb flexion and distal limb extension
What is produced in the Nucleus Accumbens?
Cogwheel and Leadpipe rigidity is seen in what disease?
Rubrospinal tract comes from what UMN?
Large amplitude and high velocity movement are seen in what lesion?
Hyperkinetic movements are seen where?
Huntington is caused by a deficiency in what Basal ganglia?
Cerebellum is derived from which plate?
Tourettes is caused by a deficiency in what BG?
- Raphe Nucleus
- Locus Cereleus
- Nucleus Accumbens
- Basal Nucleus of Myenrt
- S. Nigra/Midbrain Tegmentum
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