Neuroscience 2

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Neuroscience 2
2011-02-10 21:17:39

Neuroscience 2
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  1. At RMP is the Na inactivation gate open or closed?
  2. At RMP is the Na activation gate open or closed?
  3. During depolarization are the Na activation gates open?
    yes as is the sodium inactivation gate
  4. Absolute refractory period is due to what?
    Na inactivation gates
  5. Relative refractory period is due to what?
    Slow K activation channels
  6. Low levels of what cause Alzeimers?
  7. Destruction of what is associated with Alzeimers?
    Nucleus basalis/Basal telencephalon
  8. What shape of sulci and gyri are associated with Alzeimers?
    wide sulci and narrow gyri
  9. How are catecholamines primarily eliminated from the synaptic cleft?
    • By reuptake
    • MAO or COMT
  10. Norepinephrine is produced where?
    Locus ceruelus
  11. Dopamine is produced where?
    substantia niagra/ midbrain tegmentum in the mesencephalon
  12. 5HT is produced where?
    Midbrain Raphe Nucleus
  13. How are low levels of 5HT treated?
    selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
  14. What cell eliminates glutamate in the Brain?
  15. What effect does GABA have on CNS?
    What other molecules potentiate its effects?
    • Inhibitory...increases cl permeability..harder to depolarize...
    • alcohol
    • barbituaries
    • benzodiazopine(valium) all potentiate the effects of GABA
  16. Aspartate is excitatory where?
    in the Spinal Chord
  17. Whats the first sign of Multiple Sclerosis?
    Optic neuropathy in women in their 30's
  18. In which hematoma are RBS found in CSF?
  19. Huntington's in caused by a lesion where?
    In the striatum, especially caudate
  20. The myotatic reflex detects what type of movement?
    what nerve fiber does it use?
    • muscle stretch..length
    • Ia
  21. The reverse myotatic reflex detects what type of movement?
    What nerve fiber does it use?
    • detects overcontraction---tension
    • Ib
  22. Whats the most important UMN for antigravity reflex?
    Lateral Ventral Nucleus...LVN
  23. Where is the LVN located?
    at the medulla level
  24. What allows for antigravity reflex?
    Axial extensor bias
  25. Why is the ipsilateral vestibulospinal tract/Lateral Vestribulo Nucleus a powerful axial extensor bias system?
    because there is no internuerons involved at the level of the LMN
  26. What is the only UMN that doesnt have an interneuron?
    Lateral Vestibulo Nucleus
  27. How are lateral vestibulo nuclei, reticularis pontis oralis and reticularis pontis caudalis the same?
    • Same-- all 3 are UMN's..axial extensor bias..antigravity muscles
    • Diff---only LVN directly synapses unto a LMN..RPO and RPC have an a result are as not as powerful
  28. What is the only UMN involved in the Antigravity reflex that is bilateral?
    Reticularis Giganto Cellularis
  29. Where is the Red nucleus located?
    at the level of superior colliculi at the mesencephalon
  30. What is the UMN that is contralateral and mediates proximal limb flexion?
    Red Nucleus
  31. Betz have direct input on LMN without interneurons where?
    In the cervical chord
  32. Why is there fine controlled movement in the distal part of the upper limb?
    Because the Betz cells directly synapse unto LMN without interneurons?
  33. What is the purpose of the Lateral cortico spinal tract?
    Distal limb flexure
  34. Cortico spinal tracts decassate where?
    At the medulla/SC junction
  35. What's present in the genu of the Internal capsule?
    Cortico-bulbar tract
  36. What are the LMN in the brainstem?
  37. What UMN innervates the LMN in the brain stem?
    Cerebral Cortex area IV
  38. What are the UMN that directly project onto LMN?
    • Ia autogenic excitation
    • Lateral vestibular Nucleus LVN
    • Betz cell unto distal flexors of upper limb
  39. What are the tracts of Tectum that allow body to react with eyes to stimuli?
    • Tectospinal tract
    • medial longitudinual fasciculus
  40. The corticospinal tracts come together where?
    Internal capsule
  41. Interneurons are found in what lamina?
    Lamina VIII
  42. What are the UMN that are contralateral?
    • Red nucleus
    • Cerebral cortex
    • The lumbar portion of the flexor-crossed extensor
    • UMN to CN VII to lower face
  43. Whats the difference between the corticospinal tr and the cortico bulbar tract?
    • cortico spinal trat comes from cerebral cortex..area 4
    • corticobulbar tract---UMN to LMN in the brain stem
    • CN 3,4,5,6,7,9,10,11,12
  44. In decerebrate rigidity which is the highest UMN that is disinhibted?
    LVN..all limbs extended
  45. In decorticate rigidity which is the highest UMN that is disinhibited?
    Red nucleus---proximal limb flexion and distal limb extension
  46. What is produced in the Nucleus Accumbens?
  47. Cogwheel and Leadpipe rigidity is seen in what disease?
  48. Rubrospinal tract comes from what UMN?
    Red Nucleus
  49. Large amplitude and high velocity movement are seen in what lesion?
  50. Hyperkinetic movements are seen where?
    Basal ganglia
  51. Huntington is caused by a deficiency in what Basal ganglia?
  52. Cerebellum is derived from which plate?
    Alar late
  53. Tourettes is caused by a deficiency in what BG?
  54. 5HT
    • Raphe Nucleus
    • Locus Cereleus
    • Nucleus Accumbens
    • Basal Nucleus of Myenrt
    • S. Nigra/Midbrain Tegmentum