phys 33,34,35.txt

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kepling
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64143
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phys 33,34,35.txt
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2011-02-04 18:24:36
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phys
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Phys 34,35,36
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  1. Why is arteriole systole and recoil important?
    • Systole: allows for distension during systole
    • Recoil: pushes blood through the body during relaxation
  2. What is tone?
    • Contraction
    • ***Generally all vessels have a normal state of tone
  3. What autonomics innervate arteries and arterioles?
    SNS
  4. What is the diff. b/t basal tone and resting state?
    Resting State takes into consideration minor help from SNS
  5. What is the diff. b/t active vasoconstriction/vasodilation?
    • Active vasodilation: increase in diameter due to SNS
    • Active vasoconstriction: decrease in diameter due to SNA
  6. What is the diff. b/t passive vasodilation/vasoconstriction?
    • Passive vasodilation: return to state after active vasoconstriction
    • Passive vasoconstriction: return to state after active vasodilation
  7. What is the role of SNS and Adenosine in vessel tone?
    • SNS: active vasoconstriction/passive vasodilation
    • Adenosine: active vasodilation/passive vasoconstriction
  8. What is the role of Vasopressin and Angiotensin II?
    • Vasoconstriction
    • ***increased resistance, decreased flow
  9. What happens to vessels in warm/cold states?
    • Warm: Vasodilation
    • Cold: Vasoconstriction
  10. What is the role in increased endothelin?
    Vasoconstriction
  11. What is the role of Nitric Oxide?
    • Vasodilation
    • ***decreased resistance, increased flow
  12. What are the three intrinsic factors of vascular tone?
    • Reactive hyperemia
    • Active hyperemia
    • Autoregulation
  13. What are the two extrinsic factors of vascular tone?
    • Hormonal influence
    • Neural Influence
  14. What do extrinsic factors affect most, pressure or flow?
    Pressure > flow
  15. What is active hyperemia?
    Increased metabolites = vasodilation = increased blood flow = high oxygen = vasoconstriction
  16. What causes Reactive Hyperemia?
    Occlusion (clot, block, pinch, etc.)
  17. After an occlusion is removed, what happens to blood flow in Reactive Hyperemia?
    Blood flow is greater than before because of the vasodilation that occured to compensate for the occlusion
  18. What happens to the hyperemic response if you have an occlusion present for longer?
    It is longer and the peak of Blood flow is higher
  19. What are 5 important vasodilators?
    K, H, Adenosine, NO, CO2, Lactic Acid
  20. What gases are important in vasoconstriction?
    • High O2
    • Low CO2
  21. What is Autoregulation?
    • Changes that automatically occur when BP changes
    • BF drop: Vasodilation to increase flow and decrease resistance
    • BF Increase: Vasoconstriction to decrease flow and increase resistance
  22. What organs participate in Autoregulation?
    Brain, Heart, Kidney, Skeletal muscle
  23. Out of the smooth muscles around vessels and the precapillary sphinctors, which ones are affected by the SNS?
    Smooth muscles around vessels
  24. What are three reasons for why capillaries are good for diffusion?
    • Surface Area
    • Slow velocity of flow
    • porous
  25. What is the main hormone that widens capillaries and relaxes precapillary sphinctors?
    Histamine
  26. What vessel contains precapillary sphinctors?
    Metarterioles
  27. Where do the movements of filtration and reabsorption go?
    • Filtration: out of capillaries
    • Reabsorption: into capillaries
  28. What is the Pc at the arteriole/venous end?
    • Arteriole: 37 mmHg
    • Venous: 17 mmHg
  29. What does a negative and positive number tell us when caculating capillary fluid movement?
    • Negative = reabsorption (in)
    • Positive = filtration (out)
  30. Where will fluid flow in case of hemorrhage and why?
    Reabsorb into capillaries to replace lost fluid
  31. What is the general net outward/infward capillary filtration?
    • Outward = 11 mmHg
    • Inward = 9 mmHg
    • ***2 leftove for Lymphatic system
  32. Is there more lymph return in the pulmonary or systemic circulation?
    Systemic
  33. What are the five systems that increase venous return? (BRSSP)
    • Blood volume
    • Respiratory pump
    • Skeletal muscle pump
    • Sympathetic vasoconstriction (kinins)
    • Pressure from cardiac contraction (CO)

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