Psyc 107

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Psyc 107
2011-02-04 18:08:04

Vocabulary Terms
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  1. Applied Psychologist
    To extend principles of scientific psychology to practical, everyday problems.
  2. School Psychologist
    • A type of applied psychologist.
    • Work with students in primary and secondary schools to hep them perform academically and socially.
  3. Industrial/Organizational Psychologist
    • A type of applied psychologist.
    • Employed in industry to help improve morale, train new recruits, help managers establish effective lines of communication with their employees.
  4. Human Factors Psychologist
    • A type of applied psychologist
    • Key role in design and engineering of new products (design of a new kitchen)
  5. Research Psychologist
    Like applied psychologist, try to discover the basic principles of behavior and mind
  6. Personality Psychologist
    • A type of research psychologist
    • Concerned with the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across situations and also how people differ
  7. Cognitive Psychologist
    • A type of research psychologist
    • Focus on higher mental process such as memory, learning, and reasoning
  8. Biopsychologist
    • A type of research psychologist
    • Seek to understand how biological or genetic factors influence and determine behavior
  9. Developmental Psychologist
    • A type of research psychologist
    • Study how behavior and internal mental processing change over life
  10. Social Psychologist
    • A type of research psychologist
    • Interested in how people think about, influence, and relate to eachother
  11. Empiricism
    The idea that knowledge comes directly from experience
  12. Tabula Rassa
    • A blank tablet
    • Aristotle's belief
  13. Behaviorism
    A school of psychology proposing that the only proper subject matter of psychology is observable behavior rather than immediate conscious experience
  14. Nativism
    The idea that some knowledge is innate (present at birth)
  15. Wilhelm Wundt
    • Established first psychology laboratory
    • Founder of modern psychology
  16. Nature vs. Nurture
    The argument that were born as blank tablets or that were born with an inherited group of skills
  17. Functionalism
    The proper way to understand mind and behavior is to first analyze their function and purpose
  18. Structionalism
    Understanding the mind and breaking it down into basic parts
  19. Scientific Method
    • A multistep technique that generates empirical knowledge
    • Knowledge that is derived from systematic observations of the world
  20. Descriptive Research
    Methods designed to observe and describe behavior
  21. Case Study
    A descriptive research technique in which the efforts are focused on a single case, usually individually
  22. Random Sample
    A procedure guaranteeing that everyone in the population had an equal likelihood of being selected for that sample
  23. Aptitude Test
    Psychological tests that measure your ability to learn or acquire knowledge in a particular subject
  24. Mean
    Average of a set of scores
  25. Median
    Middle point in an ordered set of scores half of the scores fall at below the median score and half the scores fall and above the median score
  26. Mode
    Most occurring data
  27. Standard Deviation
    An indication of how much individual scores differ or vary from the mean
  28. Range
    Difference between the largest and smallest score
  29. Correlation Research
    • Indicates whether two variables vary together in a systematic way
    • It varies from +1.00 to -1.00
  30. Experimental Research
    Technique in which the investigator actively manipulates the environment to observe its effect on behavior
  31. External Validity
    The extent to which results generalize to other situations or are representative of real life
  32. Debriefing
    At the conclusion of an experimental session, informing the participants about general purpose of the experiment, including any deception involved
  33. Hypothesis
    An educated guess
  34. Independent Variable
    • The aspect of the environment that is manipulated in an experiment
    • Must be at least two conditions
  35. Internal Validity
    • The extent to which an experiment has effectively controlled for confounding variables
    • Internally valid experiments allow of the determination of causality
  36. Confounding Variables
    Uncontrolled variable that changes along with the independent variable
  37. Placebo
    Inactive, or innert, substance that resembles an experiment substance
  38. Double Blind Study
    • Neither participants nor research observers are aware of who has been assigned to the experimental and control groups
    • Used to control for both subject and experimenter expectancies
  39. Informed Consent
    The principle that before consenting to participate in research, people should be fully informed about any significant factors that could affect their willingness to participate
  40. Confidentiality
    Personal information obtained from a participant in research or therapy should not be revealed without the individuals permission