Chapter 4

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Chapter 4
2011-02-04 18:26:57
Keeping Republic American Government

Federalism an the U.S. Constitution
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  1. What is the executive branch?
    The branch of gov responsibility for putting laws into effectt/
  2. Presidential System
    Gov in which the executive is chosen independently of the legislature and the 2 branches are separate.
  3. What is the parliamentary system?
    Gov in which the executive is chosen by the legislature from among it's members and the 2 branches are merged
  4. Define judicial power
    Power to interpret laws and judge whether a law has been broken.
  5. Judicial review
    Power of the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of laws
  6. Legislative supremacy
    An alternative to judicial reviews, the acceptance of legislative acts as the final law of the land.
  7. Separation of Powers
    The institutional arrangement that assigns judicial, executive, and legislative powers to different persons or groups, thereby limiting the powers of each.
  8. Checks and Balances
    The principle that allows each branch of the gov to exercise some form of control of the others.
  9. Fusion of Powers
    An alternative to separation of powers, combining or blending branches of gov.
  10. Enumerate Powers of Congress
    Congressional powers specifically named in the Constitution (Article 1, Section 8)
  11. Necessary and Proper Clause
    Constitutional authoritarian for Congress to make any law required to carry out its powers
  12. Supremacy Clause
    Constitutional declaration (Article VI) that the Constitution and laws made under its provisions are the supreme law of the land
  13. Concurrent powers
    Powers that are shared by both the federal and state gov
  14. Dual Federalism
    Federal system under which the national and state gov are responsible for separate policy areas
  15. Cooperative Federalism
    The federal system under which the national and state gov share responsibilities for most domestic policy areas
  16. Define Unitary System
    Gov in which all power is centralized
  17. Confederal systems
    Gov in which local units hold all the powers
  18. McCulloch v. Maryland
    Supreme Court ruling confirming the supremacy of national over state government
  19. Gibbons v. Ogden
    Supreme Court ruling that established national authority over interstate business
  20. Nullification
    Declaration by a state that a federal law is void within its borders
  21. Devolution
    Transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal gov to that states
  22. Categorical grant
    Federal funds provided for a specific purpose, restricted by detailed instructions, regulations, and compliance standards
  23. Block grant
    Federal funds provided for a broad purpose, unrestricted by detailed requirements and regulations
  24. Unfunded mandate
    Federal order mandating that states operate and pay for a program created at the national level
  25. Amendability
    Provision for the Constitution to be changed, so as to adapt to new circumstances
  26. Initiative
    Citizen petitions to place a proposal or constitutional amendment on the ballot, to be adopted or rejected by majority vote, bypassing the legislature.
  27. Referendum
    An election in which a bill passed by the state legislature is submitted to voters for approval
  28. Recall elections
    Votes to remove elected officials from office