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What are the 4 characteristics of language?
- 1. Language is symbolic
- 2. Semantic ( has meaning)
- 3. Generative (can generate an infinite number of meanings)
- 4. Structured
Words have 2 kinds of meanings...
- Denotative: literal definition
- Connotative: Emotional overtones and secondary meanings
What is semantics, and what is syntax?
- Semantics is the study of word meanings and combinations
- Syntax is the system of rules defining how we may meaningfully combine words within a language (grammar)
Describe the structure of language
- -Smallest speech units are phonemes
- -The smallest units of meaning are morphemes
What are morphological markers?
- Sounds that modify words' meanings.
- ex) 's, -ed, -ing
Describe the 2 structures of language
Surface structure: the way symbols are combined within a given language. Rules for = syntax
Deep Structure: The underlying meaning of the combined symbols. Rules for = semantics
Describe the 2 ways of processing words
1. Whole word Recognition. Top down processing. Reading words we already know
2. Phonetic decomposition. Bottom up processing. reading a new word
Describe the development of language
- Babbling: intentional vocaliztion that lacks specific meaning.
- Cooing: making all the phonemes they can make
- Reduplicative babbling: long streams of syllables
- Conversational babbling: has the syntax of speech and the patterns/tone of language, but still no meaning
holophrases: single word to convey a sentence
What are the 4 language acquisition theories?
- 1. Imitation. Learning by hearing.
- (But language has generativity: children can combine words if they dont know a word...evidence that not all learning of language is just imitation)
2. Nativist. Wired to acquire language (nurture). Language acquisition device: part of brain solely for producing and analyzing language
3. social pragmatics. Meaning is learned via social context
4. General Cognitive processing. Language acquired through general cognitive skills that are used for learning in general. we are hardwired to learn
What is anthropomorphism?`
the tendency to falsely attribute human qualities to nonhuman beings
What is anthropocentrism?`
The tendency to think that human beings have nothing in common with animals
describe the 2 views of thinking
linguistic determinism: the view that all thinking is represented linguistically. language causes or determines a world view.
linguistic relativity: characteristics of language shape our thought processes. Language influences particular manners or acting or thinking
Collections of objects that share core properties
A hypothetically typical member of a category
mental model stored in memory and used to make assumptions about situations and events we encounter.
we tend to look for evidence that confirms what we believe, rather than evidence that will disprove it
any method that guarantees a solution to a problem
- guiding principles or rules of thumb that are used to solve problems
- Does NOT guarantee a solution
involves basing judements on the ease with which relevant instances can be retrieved from memory
tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use
persistence to use problem solving strategies that have worked in the past
alternative outcomes effect
people's belief about the probability of an outcome changes depending on how the alternative outcomes are distributed