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What is sociology?
Study of human groups, interactions, processes, structures, and behaviors
What do sociologist study?
Peoples attitude, behaviors, seeking to understand ways people interact and shape society, and examine social relationships scientifically
C. Wright Mills describes sociological imagination as?
Awareness of relationships of and individual and the wider society and ability to view ones society as an outsider would beyond one's limited experiences and cultural biases
What is Science?
Knowledge obtained by systematic observation
Study of physical features of nature and how it interacts and change
Study of Social features of humans and ways they interact and change
What is a Theory?
Statements that seek to explain problems, actions, or behaviors
What are Effective Theories?
Explain and predict but are not social laws
What is Macrosociology?
Concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire societies
What is Microsociology?
Stresses study of small groups and interactions
3 general theoretical veiw of society?
- Functional Perspective (Macro)
- Conflict Perspective (Macro)
- Interactionist Perspective (Micro)
What is Functional Prespective?
It is the emphasizes that societies are structured to maintain stability like a ecosystem. it help keep a balance and it is like a network of connecting parts. which helps maintain a system as a whole.
What is Conflict Perspective?
- It says that societies is best understood in terms of conflict amd tesions between groups. conflict is part of everyday life. Veiw as a struggle
- Marxist view
What is Femenist Perspective?
View in equality in genders (micro)
What is Interactionist Perspective?
- Interaction is used everyday to understand how society works as a whole.
- (nonverbal communication) include gestures, facial expressions and posture
Aguste Comte (1978-1857)
- French - not a sociologist
- Believed that investigations of behaviors is needed to improve society.
- he wrote a book on social physics
- Sociology was termed
Harriet Martineau (1802-1876)
- Studied Social behaviors
- emphasized the impact, law trade,health,and population have on society
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
- English - Not a sociologist
- studied and believed in evolutionary change in society
- He was a social darwin and believed in survival of the fittest
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
- German - Not a sociologist
- Conflict Perspective
- Believed in to classes of society
- 1#bourgeoisie - people who run the country and own the companys
- 2#proletariat - people who work for the people who run the country
- talked about alienation is when people dont connect with other people
- emphasizes that group identification and association to that which influences ones place in society
- working class can overthrow the excisting class system
- Alienation- people does not connect with other people
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
- Functional perspective
- First professor of sociology
- gave ideas that behaviors must be understood within a large society
- Anomie- loss of direction felt in society when social control of individuals becomes ineffective.
- Feeling no purpose is Nihilism
Max Weber (1864-1920)
- Second sociologist
- He believed that to fully comprehend behavior, we must learn the subjective meaning of people attached to their social action
- Verstehen-looking at things from other point of view (don't judge people)
Charles Horton Cooley (1864-1929)
- Used sociological perspective to look at face to face groups such as families, gangs and friendships and networks
- feels it is important to interact
Jane Adams (1860-1935)
Combined Sociological inquiry, social services, political activism.
Use of the dicipline of sociology with the intent of yeilding practical applications for human behavior and organizations (Jails)
Facilitating change by altering social relationship or restructuring social institutions
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