Articulation Disorder

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Anonymous
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64168
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Articulation Disorder
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2011-02-04 20:39:35
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Articulation Disorders Test
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Articulation Disorders Test 1
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  1. What are CLIENT FACTORS in Clinical Transcription?
    • AGE- Children are more difficult
    • Difficulty ATTENDING TO TASK
    • May vary VOICE and PITCH
    • May have other DISTRACTIONS, i.e. Kicking table, etc.
    • Main reason: INCOMPLETE SPEECH DEVELOPMENT: Some sounds may be ambiguous
  2. In regard to DIALECT (appendix F) need to BE AWARE OF:
    • Regional and ethnic differences and acceptable boundaries for each Physical and personality characteristics
    • Amount of lip movement: “Over articulation”
    • Speed of Speech Vocal Quality
    • Interpersonal relationships: tend to give your client the benefit of the doubt.
  3. Task Factors
    • Intelligibility- consider with and without context
    • May need to gloss the utterance
    • Gloss: the clinician’s determination of what the child intended to say.
  4. Number and type of linguistic units: phoneme, syllable, words, in which the target is embedded. Easier to score in simple context is known as...
    Linguistic Context (Complexity)
  5. Number of transcription responses is known as...
    Response complexity
  6. What term describes if the first 10 are correct, the 11th would have to be extremely difficult to be judged correctly.
    Successive Judgment
  7. 4 factors influencing task variables
    • Gloss
    • Linguistic context
    • Response Complexity
    • Keeping rapid successive judgments accurate
  8. 2 Major advantages of video...
    • Video recording preserves certain visual gestures
    • Preserves context which maybe necessary to understand speech-language behavior: eye gaze, lips.
  9. What's the Prep for Clinical Transcription?
    • Select set of symbols
    • Clarity: Can symbols be confused
    • Speed: Write quickly
    • Visibility to client--the client should not be able to see your recording
  10. Speech sounds, speech sound production, rules for combining speech sounds (related to language)
    Phonology
  11. A branch of phonetics dedicated to the study of the science of sound. It includes the study of the origin, transmission, modification, and effects of sound vibrations.
    Acoustics
  12. In articulation, the process by which sounds are affected by or take on the properties of the surrounding sounds. The perceptual property of the sound may be unaffected.
    Adaptation
  13. A form of articulation error; a superfluous sound that does not belong in a word (Ex. "biga" for big).
    Addition
  14. Words used by a young child that have an advanced pronunciation in comparison to the rest of the child's phonological system. The use of suce forms may disappear as the child's phonological system matures.
    Advanced Word Forms (Progressive Idioms)
  15. A group of consonants with the characteristics of stops and fricatives.
    Affricates
  16. Different letters (alphabetic symbols) and letter combinations that can be used to represent the same sound (phoneme) in a specific language.
    Allographs
  17. Variations of a phoneme.
    Allophones
  18. Articulatory or perceptual variations of the same phoneme, often caused by the sound's phonetic environment. Such variations do not change the meaning of the word.
    Allophonic Variations
  19. Consonant sounds /s/, /z/, /t/, /d/, /n/, & /l/ made by placing the tongue against the alveolar ridge.
    Alveolar Sounds
  20. Magnitude or range of movement of sound waves, the greater the amplitude, the louder the sound is perceived.
    Amplitude
  21. Distinctive feature characteristic of sounds made in the front region of the mouth, generally at the alveolar ridge or forward.
    Anterior feature
  22. Sound substitution created by the coarticulatory effects of a sound that follows the target sound.
    Anticipatory Substitution
  23. Sound vibrations (or other events) that do not repeat themselves at regular intervals and is perceived as noise.
    Aperiodic
  24. A branch of phonetics dedicated to the practical application of the knowledge gained from experimental, articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual phonetics.
    Applied Phonetics
  25. Sounds produced by an "approximating" contact between the two articulators that form them, includes liquids and glides.
    Approximants
  26. A consonant sound that closes a syllable
    Arresting Sound
  27. In speech, movement of the speech mechanism to produce the sound of speech. One of the four basic processes involved in speech production.
    Articulation
  28. Problems in producing speech sounds
    Articulation Disorders
  29. Organs of speech production mechanism, help produce meaningful sound by interrupting the flow of exhaled air or by narrowing the space for its passage.
    • Articulators
    • lips
    • tongue
    • velum
    • jaw
    • hard palate
    • alveolar ridge
    • teeth.
  30. A branch of phonetics that focuses on how a speaker of a language makes speech sounds.
    Articulatory Phonetics (Physiologic Phonetics)
  31. The effect one speech sound has on another when produced in close sequence, such that the sounds become more like each other. The effect can be so extensive that it can be perceptually identified.
    • Assimilation
    • Progressive
    • Regressive
  32. The playful vocal sounds that babies produce beginning at about 6-7 months of age.
    Babbling
  33. A distinctive feature that characterizes sounds made in the back part of the oral cavity, the body of the tongue is retracted from the neutral position "schwa" during the production of sounds containing this feature.
    Back feature
  34. A treatment method that explicitly uses the principles and procedures of operant conditioning and learning.
    Behavioral Approach
  35. Involving both lips
    Bilabial
  36. 2 or more consonant sounds made next to each other with no vowel separation. (Ex. /tr/, /pl/, /str/)
    Blends (clusters)
  37. A morpheme that cannot convey meaning by itself, for example, the regular plural s in the word cats.
    Bound Morpheme
  38. The act of writing a phoneme into special phonetic symbols enclosed between virgules; it can be interpreted only by someone familiar with the phonology of the language transcribed (/bot/ for boat; /"sh"Ip/ for ship)
    Broad phonetic transcription
  39. Term used in reference to the combined stages of reduplicated and variegated babbling.
    Canonical babbling
  40. A hollow space within the body; a structure within the body containing other strucures.
    Cavity
  41. 2 or more consonant sounds made next to each other with no vowel separation.
    Cluster (blend)
  42. Omission of one or more consonants of a cluster ("top" for stop)
    Cluster Reduction
  43. Omission or substitution of one or more sound segments in a consonant cluster. Can be considered a phonological process if it occurs frequently in a child's phonological system.
    Cluster Simplification
  44. Articulatory movements for one phone that are carried over into the production of previous or subsequent phones; influence of one phone on another in preception or production.
    Coarticulation
  45. Changing from one language or dialect to another during a conversation.
    Code Switching
  46. Consonants produced in the same place and manner, except that one is voiceless and the other is voiced; in phonetic transcription they are typically written in pairs, with the voiceless sound given first.
    Cognates
  47. In acoustics, a sound wave characterized by combined pure tones; it has more than one pitch and contains components of different frequencies.
    Complex Tone
  48. A conventional speech sound made by certain movements of the articulatory muscles that alter, interrupt, or obstruct the expired airstream; defined according to manner of production, place of articulation, and voicing dimensions.
    Consonant
  49. A distinctive feature applied to sounds that have a marked constriction along the midline region of the vocal tract. Includes all consonant sounds except /h/, /w/, and /j/.
    Consonantal Feature
  50. A phonological process that describes the omission of initial or final consonants of words, a phonological problem.
    Consonant Deletion
  51. An assimilation phonological process that affects manner of production or place of articulation, includes labial assimilation, velar assimilation, nasal assimilation, and alveolar assimilation.
    Consonant Harmony
  52. The omission of one ore more sound segments from two or more adjoining consonants.
    Consonant Sequence Reduction
  53. Distinctive feature applied to sounds made with an incomplete point of constriction, flow of air is not entirely stopped.
    Continuant
  54. A distinctive feature used in reference to sounds made with the tongue blade raised above the neutral position required for the production of "schwa".
    Coronal Feature
  55. A research method in which many subjects, selected from different age levels, are studied simultaneously for a relatively brief duration.
    Cross-sectional Method
  56. Substitution of an oral sound for a nasal sound (tep" for ten), a problem of articulation.
    Denasalization.
  57. Special symbols used in narrow phonetic transcription to depict the articulatory or perceptual features of a phone.
    Diacritical Markers
  58. Variation of speech within a specific language. May have its own unique phonologic, semantic, morphologic, syntactic, and pragmatic characteristics.
    Dialect
  59. A combination of 2 pure vowels.
    Diphthong
  60. Theory indicating that speech sounds are not shaped out of the early vocalizations found in the babbling stage.
    Discontinuity Theory
  61. Unique characteristics that distinguish one phoneme from another.
    Distinctive Features
  62. A phonological process characterized by reduplication of a syllable, often alters a single-syllable word form into a multisyllable production ("dada" for dog and "baba" for ball)
    Doubling
  63. A property of sound; a measure of time during which vibrations are sustained.
    Duration
  64. Elaborations of a child's utterance to make it longer and grammatically more correct.
    Expansions
  65. A branch of phonetics dedicated to the development of scientific methods for the study of speech sounds.
    Experimental Phonetics
  66. A phonological process affecting the production of final consonants. Patterned deletion of consonant sounds in the final position of words.
    Final-Consonant Deletion
  67. A morpheme that can stand alone and mean something.
    Free Morpheme

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