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What are CLIENT FACTORS in Clinical Transcription?
- AGE- Children are more difficult
- Difficulty ATTENDING TO TASK
- May vary VOICE and PITCH
- May have other DISTRACTIONS, i.e. Kicking table, etc.
- Main reason: INCOMPLETE SPEECH DEVELOPMENT: Some sounds may be ambiguous
In regard to DIALECT (appendix F) need to BE AWARE OF:
- Regional and ethnic differences and acceptable boundaries for each Physical and personality characteristics
- Amount of lip movement: “Over articulation”
- Speed of Speech Vocal Quality
- Interpersonal relationships: tend to give your client the benefit of the doubt.
- Intelligibility- consider with and without context
- May need to gloss the utterance
- Gloss: the clinician’s determination of what the child intended to say.
Number and type of linguistic units: phoneme, syllable, words, in which the target is embedded. Easier to score in simple context is known as...
Linguistic Context (Complexity)
Number of transcription responses is known as...
What term describes if the first 10 are correct, the 11th would have to be extremely difficult to be judged correctly.
4 factors influencing task variables
- Linguistic context
- Response Complexity
- Keeping rapid successive judgments accurate
2 Major advantages of video...
- Video recording preserves certain visual gestures
- Preserves context which maybe necessary to understand speech-language behavior: eye gaze, lips.
What's the Prep for Clinical Transcription?
- Select set of symbols
- Clarity: Can symbols be confused
- Speed: Write quickly
- Visibility to client--the client should not be able to see your recording
Speech sounds, speech sound production, rules for combining speech sounds (related to language)
A branch of phonetics dedicated to the study of the science of sound. It includes the study of the origin, transmission, modification, and effects of sound vibrations.
In articulation, the process by which sounds are affected by or take on the properties of the surrounding sounds. The perceptual property of the sound may be unaffected.
A form of articulation error; a superfluous sound that does not belong in a word (Ex. "biga" for big).
Words used by a young child that have an advanced pronunciation in comparison to the rest of the child's phonological system. The use of suce forms may disappear as the child's phonological system matures.
Advanced Word Forms (Progressive Idioms)
A group of consonants with the characteristics of stops and fricatives.
Different letters (alphabetic symbols) and letter combinations that can be used to represent the same sound (phoneme) in a specific language.
Variations of a phoneme.
Articulatory or perceptual variations of the same phoneme, often caused by the sound's phonetic environment. Such variations do not change the meaning of the word.
Consonant sounds /s/, /z/, /t/, /d/, /n/, & /l/ made by placing the tongue against the alveolar ridge.
Magnitude or range of movement of sound waves, the greater the amplitude, the louder the sound is perceived.
Distinctive feature characteristic of sounds made in the front region of the mouth, generally at the alveolar ridge or forward.
Sound substitution created by the coarticulatory effects of a sound that follows the target sound.
Sound vibrations (or other events) that do not repeat themselves at regular intervals and is perceived as noise.
A branch of phonetics dedicated to the practical application of the knowledge gained from experimental, articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual phonetics.
Sounds produced by an "approximating" contact between the two articulators that form them, includes liquids and glides.
A consonant sound that closes a syllable
In speech, movement of the speech mechanism to produce the sound of speech. One of the four basic processes involved in speech production.
Problems in producing speech sounds
Organs of speech production mechanism, help produce meaningful sound by interrupting the flow of exhaled air or by narrowing the space for its passage.
- hard palate
- alveolar ridge
A branch of phonetics that focuses on how a speaker of a language makes speech sounds.
Articulatory Phonetics (Physiologic Phonetics)
The effect one speech sound has on another when produced in close sequence, such that the sounds become more like each other. The effect can be so extensive that it can be perceptually identified.
The playful vocal sounds that babies produce beginning at about 6-7 months of age.
A distinctive feature that characterizes sounds made in the back part of the oral cavity, the body of the tongue is retracted from the neutral position "schwa" during the production of sounds containing this feature.
A treatment method that explicitly uses the principles and procedures of operant conditioning and learning.
Involving both lips
2 or more consonant sounds made next to each other with no vowel separation. (Ex. /tr/, /pl/, /str/)
A morpheme that cannot convey meaning by itself, for example, the regular plural s in the word cats.
The act of writing a phoneme into special phonetic symbols enclosed between virgules; it can be interpreted only by someone familiar with the phonology of the language transcribed (/bot/ for boat; /"sh"Ip/ for ship)
Broad phonetic transcription
Term used in reference to the combined stages of reduplicated and variegated babbling.
A hollow space within the body; a structure within the body containing other strucures.
2 or more consonant sounds made next to each other with no vowel separation.
Omission of one or more consonants of a cluster ("top" for stop)
Omission or substitution of one or more sound segments in a consonant cluster. Can be considered a phonological process if it occurs frequently in a child's phonological system.
Articulatory movements for one phone that are carried over into the production of previous or subsequent phones; influence of one phone on another in preception or production.
Changing from one language or dialect to another during a conversation.
Consonants produced in the same place and manner, except that one is voiceless and the other is voiced; in phonetic transcription they are typically written in pairs, with the voiceless sound given first.
In acoustics, a sound wave characterized by combined pure tones; it has more than one pitch and contains components of different frequencies.
A conventional speech sound made by certain movements of the articulatory muscles that alter, interrupt, or obstruct the expired airstream; defined according to manner of production, place of articulation, and voicing dimensions.
A distinctive feature applied to sounds that have a marked constriction along the midline region of the vocal tract. Includes all consonant sounds except /h/, /w/, and /j/.
A phonological process that describes the omission of initial or final consonants of words, a phonological problem.
An assimilation phonological process that affects manner of production or place of articulation, includes labial assimilation, velar assimilation, nasal assimilation, and alveolar assimilation.
The omission of one ore more sound segments from two or more adjoining consonants.
Consonant Sequence Reduction
Distinctive feature applied to sounds made with an incomplete point of constriction, flow of air is not entirely stopped.
A distinctive feature used in reference to sounds made with the tongue blade raised above the neutral position required for the production of "schwa".
A research method in which many subjects, selected from different age levels, are studied simultaneously for a relatively brief duration.
Substitution of an oral sound for a nasal sound (tep" for ten), a problem of articulation.
Special symbols used in narrow phonetic transcription to depict the articulatory or perceptual features of a phone.
Variation of speech within a specific language. May have its own unique phonologic, semantic, morphologic, syntactic, and pragmatic characteristics.
A combination of 2 pure vowels.
Theory indicating that speech sounds are not shaped out of the early vocalizations found in the babbling stage.
Unique characteristics that distinguish one phoneme from another.
A phonological process characterized by reduplication of a syllable, often alters a single-syllable word form into a multisyllable production ("dada" for dog and "baba" for ball)
A property of sound; a measure of time during which vibrations are sustained.
Elaborations of a child's utterance to make it longer and grammatically more correct.
A branch of phonetics dedicated to the development of scientific methods for the study of speech sounds.
A phonological process affecting the production of final consonants. Patterned deletion of consonant sounds in the final position of words.
A morpheme that can stand alone and mean something.