Number and type of linguistic units: phoneme, syllable, words, in which the target is embedded. Easier to score in simple context is known as...
Linguistic Context (Complexity)
Number of transcription responses is known as...
What term describes if the first 10 are correct, the 11th would have to be extremely difficult to be judged correctly.
4 factors influencing task variables
Keeping rapid successive judgments accurate
What's the Prep for Clinical Transcription?
Select set of symbols
Clarity: Can symbols be confused
Speed: Write quickly
Visibility to client--the client should not be able to see your recording
Speech sounds, speech sound production, rules for combining speech sounds (related to language)
A branch of phonetics dedicated to the study of the science of sound. It includes the study of the origin, transmission, modification, and effects of sound vibrations.
In articulation, the process by which sounds are affected by or take on the properties of the surrounding sounds. The perceptual property of the sound may be unaffected.
A form of articulation error; a superfluous sound that does not belong in a word (Ex. "biga" for big).
Words used by a young child that have an advanced pronunciation in comparison to the rest of the child's phonological system. The use of such forms may disappear as the child's phonological system matures.
Advanced Word Forms (Progressive Idioms)
A group of consonants with the characteristics of stops and fricatives.
Different letters (alphabetic symbols) and letter combinations that can be used to represent the same sound (phoneme) in a specific language.
Variations of a phoneme.
Articulatory or perceptual variations of the same phoneme, often caused by the sound's phonetic environment. Such variations do not change the meaning of the word.
Consonant sounds /s/, /z/, /t/, /d/, /n/, & /l/ made by placing the tongue against the alveolar ridge.
Magnitude or range of movement of sound waves, the greater the amplitude, the louder the sound is perceived.
Distinctive feature characteristic of sounds made in the front region of the mouth, generally at the alveolar ridge or forward.
Sound substitution created by the coarticulatory effects of a sound that follows the target sound.
Sound vibrations (or other events) that do not repeat themselves at regular intervals and is perceived as noise.
A branch of phonetics dedicated to the practical application of the knowledge gained from experimental, articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual phonetics.
Sounds produced by an "approximating" contact between the two articulators that form them (includes liquids and glides).
A consonant sound that closes a syllable
In speech, movement of the speech mechanism to produce the sound of speech. One of the four basic processes involved in speech production.
Problems in producing speech sounds
Organs of speech production mechanism, help produce meaningful sound by interrupting the flow of exhaled air or by narrowing the space for its passage.
A branch of phonetics that focuses on how a speaker of a language makes speech sounds.
Articulatory Phonetics (Physiologic Phonetics)
The effect one speech sound has on another when produced in close sequence, such that the sounds become more like each other. The effect can be so extensive that it can be perceptually identified.
The playful vocal sounds that babies produce beginning at about 6-7 months of age.
A distinctive feature that characterizes sounds made in the back part of the oral cavity, the body of the tongue is retracted from the neutral position "schwa" during the production of sounds containing this feature.
A treatment method that explicitly uses the principles and procedures of operant conditioning and learning.
Involving both lips
2 or more consonant sounds made next to each other with no vowel separation. (Ex. /tr/, /pl/, /str/)
A morpheme that cannot convey meaning by itself, for example, the regular plural s in the word cats.
The act of writing a phoneme into special phonetic symbols enclosed between virgules; it can be interpreted only by someone familiar with the phonology of the language transcribed (/bot/ for boat; /"sh"Ip/ for ship)
Broad phonetic transcription
Term used in reference to the combined stages of reduplicated and variegated babbling.
A hollow space within the body; a structure within the body containing other strucures.
2 or more consonant sounds made next to each other with no vowel separation.
Omission of one or more consonants of a cluster ("top" for stop)
Omission or substitution of one or more sound segments in a consonant cluster. Can be considered a phonological process if it occurs frequently in a child's phonological system.
Articulatory movements for one phone that are carried over into the production of previous or subsequent phones; influence of one phone on another in preception or production.
Changing from one language or dialect to another during a conversation.
Consonants produced in the same place and manner, except that one is voiceless and the other is voiced; in phonetic transcription they are typically written in pairs, with the voiceless sound given first.
In acoustics, a sound wave characterized by combined pure tones; it has more than one pitch and contains components of different frequencies.
A conventional speech sound made by certain movements of the articulatory muscles that alter, interrupt, or obstruct the expired airstream; defined according to manner of production, place of articulation, and voicing dimensions.
A distinctive feature applied to sounds that have a marked constriction along the midline region of the vocal tract. Includes all consonant sounds except /h/, /w/, and /j/.
A phonological process that describes the omission of initial or final consonants of words, a phonological problem.
An assimilation phonological process that affects manner of production or place of articulation, includes labial assimilation, velar assimilation, nasal assimilation, and alveolar assimilation.
The omission of one ore more sound segments from two or more adjoining consonants.
Consonant Sequence Reduction
Distinctive feature applied to sounds made with an incomplete point of constriction, flow of air is not entirely stopped.
A distinctive feature used in reference to sounds made with the tongue blade raised above the neutral position required for the production of "schwa".
A research method in which many subjects, selected from different age levels, are studied simultaneously for a relatively brief duration.
Substitution of an oral sound for a nasal sound ("tep" for ten), a problem of articulation.
Special symbols used in narrow phonetic transcription to depict the articulatory or perceptual features of a phone.
Variation of speech within a specific language. May have its own unique phonologic, semantic, morphologic, syntactic, and pragmatic characteristics.
A combination of 2 pure vowels.
Theory indicating that speech sounds are not shaped out of the early vocalizations found in the babbling stage.
Unique characteristics that distinguish one phoneme from another.
A phonological process characterized by reduplication of a syllable, often alters a single-syllable word form into a multisyllable production ("dada" for dog and "baba" for ball)
A property of sound; a measure of time during which vibrations are sustained.
Elaborations of a child's utterance to make it longer and grammatically more correct.
A branch of phonetics dedicated to the development of scientific methods for the study of speech sounds.
A phonological process affecting the production of final consonants. Patterned deletion of consonant sounds in the final position of words.
A morpheme that can stand alone and mean something.
In reference to sound, the number of times a cycle of vibration repeats itself within a second.
In articulation and phonology, the number of times a particular phonological process occurs.
Frequency of Occurrence
A category of speech sounds that are produced by severely constricting the oral cavity and forcing the air through the point of constriction.
Substituting sounds produced in the front of the mouth for sounds produced in the back of the mouth; classified as a phonological process that occurs in both normally developing children and children with phonological disorders.
Words that children continue to mispronounce despite the development of a more advanced phonological system; such words are likely related to names of familiar people or pets are used often.
Frozen Word Forms (Regressive Idioms)
The average rate at which given vocal folds vibrate, or the lowest frequency component of a complex tone.
The production of untrained (new) behaviors following training of similar behaviors, or the production of trained behaviors when shown new stimuli not used in training.
Production of behaviors that have not been taught because of similar behaviors that have been taught; generalized productions are a treatment goal that may save much time and training effort.
Speech sounds that are produced by gradually changing the shape of the articulators.
The name for cycles per second.
Distinctive feature term referring to sounds made with the tongue elevated above the neutral position required for "schwa".
A scientific method of studying speech discrimination in young infants by measuring their sucking rates when various sound syllables are presented.
High-Amplitude Sucking Method
A branch of phonetics dedicated to studying how sounds change over time.
A phonological process affecting the production of initial consonants; patterned deletion of consonant sounds in the initial position of words.
How understandable a person's speech is to family members, strangers, and other listeners.
Magnitude of sound, sounds that are perceived as louder are greater in this...
Sound made by lightly placing the tip of the tongue between the upper and lower central incisors.
Distinctive feature term applied to sounds produced by complete blockage of the airstream at their point of constriction; such sounds are the stops /t/, /d/, /k/, /g/, /p/, /b/ and the affricates "ch" and "ja"
In articulation, singleton consonants or consonants blends that occur between vowels or diphthongs.
System within a language relating to pitch, stress, and junctue of the spoken language; pattern of pitch and stress in the flow of a person's speech.
In speech and language development, verbal behavior by young children that begins at about 10 months out of the variegated babbling stage; productions are characterized by strings of sounds and syllables with a variety of stress and intonational patterns. Often overlaps with the early period of meaningful speech.
Jargon--(also called Conversational/Modulated Babble)
A suprasegmental device that helps make semantic or grammatical distinctions in speech, including brief pauses to signal what might be represented by punctuation marks in written English.
Sounds that are produced by the lips and teeth.
A system of symbols and codes in communication; a form of social behavior shaped and maintained by a verbal community.
Sounds that are produced by letting air escape throught the sides of the tongue; English /l/.
Vowel sounds that are made without added muscle tension and have a short duration.
Sounds produced by raising the tip of the tongue to make contact with the alveolar ridge, which is immediately behind the front teeth.
Sounds produced by the tongue as it makes contact with the upper teeth.
Sounds produced by the tongue as it comes in contact with the hard plate, which is located just behind the alveolar ridge.
Sounds produced by the back of the tongue as it raised to make contact with the velum (soft palate).
In articulation-phonological therapy, tx programs or approaches with the underlying philosophy that children's production errors result from phonological processes or rules of the adult system that have not yet been learned or fully acquired, or have been suppressed.
Speech sounds produced with the least restriction of the oral cavity; also called semivowels. English /r/ and /l/ sounds.
A procedure of studying one or a few subjects for an extended period of time to document changes in selected variables. Shildren's acquisition of language may be studied longitudinally.
A perceived characteristic of sound determined by the intensity of the sound signal and degree of subglottal pressure.
Distinctive feature term used to describe sounds made with the tongue lowered for the neutral position of "schwa." In American English, only the consonant /h/ has this feature.
The degree of and type of constriction of the vocal tract while producing certain speech sounds.
Manner of Production
Infant vocal productions characterized by CV and VC syllable sequences that begin at about 4 months of age.
Features of sound systems that are unique to given languages; presumably learned, not innate.
The study of the conscious awareness of language as a tool and the ability to reflect on language.
A subcomponent of metalinguistics; the ability to reflect on sounds and words.
Term used in reference to pure vowels.
Smallest meaningul unit of a language.
Sound alterations that result from joining one morpheme with another...these rules specify how sounds are produced in combination in morphemes.
A detailed form of recording a speech sound or utterance using the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet and special diacritic markers; transcription enclosed in brackets to highlight the allophonic features or variations of a phoneme ([khout] for coat would indicate an aspirated production of the /k/ sound).
Narrow Phonetic Transcription
Speech sounds with nasal resonance added to them; produced while keeping the velopharyngeal port open.
Distinctive feature applied to sounds resonated in the nasal cavity. Include /m/, /n/, and /ng/.
Theoretical explanation of articulatory and phonological development' describes universal phonological processes evident in children's speech and considers those processes as innate mechanisms of simplifying the adult productions.
Phonological theory that postulates that some phonological properties are more common among languages while other properties are unique to given languages.
Naturalness and Markedness
Infant vocal productions that are non-reflexive in nature; includes such productions as cooing, vocal play, marginal babbling, reduplicated babbling, variegated babbling, and jargon.
Diphthongs that don't contrast meaning in words when they are interchanged with their pure-vowel counterpart; the only 2 American examples are /ei/ and /ou/.
Distinctive feature term used for consonants that are made with complete closure or narrow constriction of the oral cavity so that the airstream is stopped or friction noise is produced: include stops, fridcatives, and affricates.
Absence of a required sound in a word position; a type of articulation error.
One of the components of the syllable; the consonant or consonant cluster that initiates the syllable.
Syllable that ends in a vowel or a diphthong.
Process by which people select, organize, integrate, and interpret sensory information into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world around them.
Branch of phonetics that studies the perception of sounds by the listener, including sound awareness and sound interpretation.
Patterned repetition of the vibrations of a complex tone, which is a sound that consists of different frequencies.
To produce sound.
One of the 4 basic speech processes. The production of voice through vocal fold vibration.
In the study of speech production, a single speech sound represented by a single symbol in a phonetic system.
Group or family of very closely related speech sounds that vary slightly in their production but are sufficiently similar acoustically that the listener perceives them as the same sound. For example, wheter t in cat is aspirated or unaspirated, the listener perceives the sound as /t/.
Phonological awareness skill in identifying whether a specific sound occurs in the beginning, end, or middle of a word.
Phonological awareness skill in deleting, adding, or substituting a sound in a word to create other words.
Diphthong that cannot be reduced to its pure-vowel components without affecting the meaning of the words in which they occur.
In phonological analysis, an inventory of sounds that a child uses contrastively to signal a difference in the meanings of words.
Recording of a speech sound or speech unit into phonemic symbols, which are enclosed between virgules; such recording indicates the phoneme to which the sound belongs.
Phonemic transcription (broad transcription)
Study of the sound system and sound differences in a language.
Study of speech sounds, their production and acoustic properties, and the written symbols used to represent their production.
A person's repertoire of speech sounds; sounds that a person can produce with appropriate articulation although not always contrastively.
Errors of many phonemes that form patterns or clusters.
In articulation-phonological assessment, the classification of sound errors according to operating phonological processes and their frequencies.
Phonological Process Analysis
Many ways or patterns of simplifying difficult sound productions by omissions or substitutions.
Study of speech sounds, sound patterns, and the rules used to create words with those sounds.
Rules for how sounds can be combined to form syllables and how those sounds can be distributed; some rules vary across languages.
Sensation determined by the frequency of sound vibration; the greater the frequency, the higher the ________.
One of three factors used to classify consonants; refers to the place of articulatory contact or constriction.
Place of Articulation
Stop consonant produced when the impounded air pressure behind the point of constriction is relaeased through the oral cavity.
Consonant or consonant blend produced after a vowel or a diphthong; these sounds terminate they syllable.
Period before the acquisition of language.
Prelingual (as in prelingually deaf)
Refers to a period before the acquisition of language.
Prelinguistic (as in prelinguistic speech)
Force, distributed over a certain area.
In speech production, a consonant or consonant blend occuring before a vowel or diphthong; these sounds initiate the syllable.
Theoretical view that states that children's acquisition of phonological skills begins with a mastery of certain initial words, which are schemata of adult forms.
Prosodic View of Development
Variations in rate, pitch, loudness, stress, intonation, and rhythm of continuous speech.
Consistent sound patterns produced by young children that are semantically potent (carry meaning) but are not modeled after any adult words.
Tone of single frequency.
Vowel sounds that maintain a relatively unchanged quality across the syllables in which they are produced.
Infant vocal productions in which a series of consonant-vowel syllables are repeated (ma-ma, pa-pa, bo-bo); such productions begin at about 7 months of age.
Automatic responses produced by an infant that reflect his or her physical state, including crying, burping, coughing, and hiccuping.
Type of assimilation in which a sound takes on some or all of the articulatory or acoustic features of a following sound.
Forced vibration of a structure that is related to the source of sound; vibration of cavities below and above the larynx (source of sound).
One of the 4 basic speech processes. This system provides the air supply necessary for vocal fold vibration and speech production.
Distinctive feature term used for the /r/ consonant and its various allophonic variations.
Phonological awareness skill in identifying words that sound alike or rhyme.
Distinctive feature term applied to sounds made with the lips rounded or protruded.
Consonant sound made by maintaining the vocal tract briefly in the vowel-like position needed for the following vowel in a syllable; terms used for /w/, /j/, and sometimes /l/ and /r/.
Distinctive feature term applied to high-frquency consonant sounds that have a more strident quality and longer duration than most other consonants.
A consonant sound produced with a relatively unobstructed flow of air at the point of constriction.
Waves of disturbance in the molecules of a gas, a liquid, or a solid created by the vibrations of an object and the sensation felt by the hearing mechanism due to those vibrations.
Production of a misarticulated sound that approaches the target or standard production of that phoneme.
Phonological awareness skill to break down a word into its individual sound components.
Photograph of the pressure waves of a particualr sound.
Pattern of physical energy across a frequency range for a particular sound.
Production of phonemes; articulated sounds and syllables.
Identification of speech sounds from acoustic cues.
Extent to which a misarticulated sound can be produced correctly by imitation or other cues.
Speech sounds produced by completely stopping the airflow.
Stops (also known as stop-plosives)
Phonological process term used to describe patterned substitutions of stop consonants for fricatives and affricates.
Suprasegmental device that gives prominence to certain syllables within a sequence of syllables.
Consonant sounds that are made by forcing the airstream through a small opening, which results in intense noise.
Production of a wrong sound in place of a right one.
Prosodic features of a language, including stress, intonation, timing, duration, and juncture.
Vowel sound that creates the syllable; sometimes refers to consonants that take on a syllable-forming status (/l/ in the second syllable of the word handle).
Syllabic Speech Sound
Combination of a consonant and a vowel.
Distinctive feature term applied to sounds that are made with a relatively greater degree of tension or contraction at the root of the tongue.
In articulation, a physiologic occurrence in which a sound takes on all of the characteristics of a neighboring sound, thus becoming identical to a neighboring sound ( the k of cat totally assimilating to the t that follows to produce "tat").
Words used by young children that have semantic consistency and closely match adult production in their phonological and articulatory features.
True Words (Real Words)
Features of sound systems that are shared by many languages of the world (also called natural); thought to be innate.
Vowels made without lip rounding.
Infant vocalizing that typically begins at about 9 months of age; characterized by the production of vowel, consonant-vowel, and some consonant-vowel-consonant syllable combinations, with varying consonants and vowels from one syllable to another.
Phonological process characterized by the substitution of alveolar consonants for velar souns; typical substitutions include d/g, t/k, and n/ng, however, others may be observed.
Method to study speech perception in infants and young babies.
Visually Reinforced Head Turn Method
Pair of thin muscles in the larynx whose vibrations are the source of voice.
Distinctive feature term used for sounds made without marked constriction of the vocal tract; includes all vowels and the consonants /l/ and /r/.
Presence of vocal fold vibrations in the production of speech sounds.
Speech sound produced with an unrestricted passage of the airstream through the oral cavity; a syllable-forming sound.
Schematic representation of the tongue positions for the 4 extreme points of vowel production /i/, /u/, /ae/ and /a/.