Midterms: Earth Science for 8th Grade SP New York

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1. Which action can be performed most accurately using only the human senses?

(A) tearing a sheet of paper into squares whose sides measure 1 centimeter
(B) measuring the air pressure of a room
(C) counting 28 shells from a beach
(D) adding 10 grams of salt to a cup of water
(C) counting 28 shells from a beach
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
2. Using a ruler to measure the length of a stick is an example of
(A) extending the sense of sight by using an instrument
(B) calculating the percent of error by using a proportion
(C) measuring the rate of change of the stick by making inferences
(D) predicting the length of the stick by guessing
(A) extending the sense of sight by using an instrument
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3. A group of students observed and measure various characteristics of a stream for one day. Which statement about the stream is most likely an inference?
(A) The stream's depth is different at various distances from the streambank
(B) The velocity of the stream is greatest near the outside of a meander
(C) The stream water is dark brown.
(D) The water level of the stream will rise after the next rainfall.
(D) The water level of the stream will rise after the next rainfall.
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
4. Which procedure is an example of classifying observed data?
(A) grouping stars by brightness
(B) graphing temperature versus time for a particular date
(C) photographing the could cover for a location throughout 1 week
(D) measuring the angle of Polaris from two different locations
(A) grouping stars by brightness
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
5. A student incorrectly measure the volume of a mineral sample as 83 cubic centimeters when the actual volume was 89 centimeters. What was the student's approximate percent error?
(A) 7.2%
(B) 14.8%
(C) 9.3%
(D) 6.7%
(D) 6.7%
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
6. As air on the surface of Earth warms, the density of the air
(A) increases
(B) remains the same
(C) decreases
(C) decreases
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7. If each side of a cube is 2.2 cm what is the approximate volume of the cube?
(A) 2.20 cm3
(B) 4.84 cm3
(C) 6.60 cm3
(D) 10.65 cm3
(D) 10.65 cm3
8. (use your Earth Science Reference Tables)
A person incorrectly measures the mass of a rock as 346 grams. The actual mass is 326 grams. What is the person's approximate percent error?
(A) 5.8%
(B) 6.1%
(C) 8.2%
(D) 16.3%
(B) 6.1%
9. Mineral: A B C D
Mass: 50g 60g 55g 40g
Volume: 20mL 15mL 10mL 5mL

Which mineral has the greatest density?
(A) C
(B) D
(C) B
(D) A
(B) D
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
10. (use your Earth Science Reference Tables)
Water has its greatest density at a temperature of
(A) -6oC
(B) 10oC
(C) 32oC
(D) 4oC
(D) 4oC
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11. A sphere has a mass of 0.8 grams and a density of 0.4 g/cm3. What is the volume of this sphere?
(A) 1.0 cm3
(B) 2.0 cm3
(C) 16.0 cm3
(D) 7.0 cm3
(B) 2.0 cm3
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
12. Ocean tides are best described as
(A) predictable and cyclic
(B) unpredictable and cyclic
(C) unpredictable and noncyclic
(D) predictable and noncylcic
(A) predictable and cyclic
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13. Which object best represents a true scale model of the shape of the Earth?
(A) a ping-pong ball
(B) a football
(C) a pear
(D) an egg
(A) a ping-pong ball
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14. An example of noncyclic change is the occurrence of
(A) the seasons of the year
(B) the phases of the Moon
(C) earthquakes
(D) ocean tides
(C) earthquakes
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15. What is an observation?
16. If a cube has a volume of 8 cm3, what is the length of any one side?
(A) 4 cm
(B) 8 cm
(C) 2 cm
(D) 1 cm
(C) 2 cm
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
17. What is an inference?
drawing a conclusion based on your background knowledge and observations
18. At which latitude would the Sun be viewed most nearly overhead at noon during the month of June?
(A) 231/2oN
(B) 45oN
(C) 66 1/2oN
(D) 90oN
(A) 231/2oN
19. The best evidence of the Earth's nearly spherical shape is obtained through
(A) telescopic observations of other planets
(B) observations of the Sun's altitude made during the day
(C) observations of the Moon made during lunar eclipses
(D) photographs of the Earth from an orbiting satellite
(D) photographs of the Earth from an orbiting satellite
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20. Two students in different parts of New York State measure the altitude of Polaris above the horizon. The student near new York City finds the angle fo be 41o. The student near Massena finds the angle to be 45o. Which statement best is supported by this information?
(A) measurements were taken in different seasons.
(B) The surface of the Earth is curved.
(C) The orbit of the Earth is elliptical.
(D) The center of the Earth is closer to New York
(B) The surface of the Earth is curved.
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
21. The circumference of the Earth is about 4.0 x 104 kilometers. this value is equal to
(A) 400,000 km
(B) 400 km
(C) 4,000 km
(D) 40,000 km
(D) 40,000 km
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
22. (use your Earth Science Reference Tables)
The radius of the Sun is approximately how many times greater than the radius of the Earth?
(A) 10
(B) 1
(C) 10,000
(D) 100
(D) 100
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
23. Compared to the circumference of Earth measure at the Equator, the circumference of Earth measure through the poles is
(A) slightly smaller
(B) exactly the same
(C) slightly larger
(A) slightly smaller
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24. At sea level, which location would be closest to the center of the Earth?
(A) the North Pole
(B) the Equator
(C) 23 1/2o North latitude
(D) 45o South latitude
(A) the North Pole
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
25. At an altitude of 95 miles above Earth's surface, nearly 100% of the incoming energy from the Sun can be detected. At 55 miles above Earth's surface, most incoming x-ray radiation and some incoming ultraviolet radiation can no longer be detected. This missing radiation was most likely
(A) absorbed in the thermosphere
(B) absorbed in the mesosphere
(C) reflected by the troposphere
(D) reflected by the stratosphere
(A) absorbed in the thermosphere
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26. An air temperature of 95oC most often exists in which layer of the atmosphere?
(A) mesosphere
(B) troposphere
(C) thermosphere
(D) stratosphere
(C) thermosphere
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27. What will happen when an object is heated?
(A) Its mass will increase and its volume will remain the same.
(B) Its mass will decrease and its volume will remain the same.
(C) Its mass will remain the same and its volume will increase.
(D) Its mass will remain the same and its volume will decrease.
(C) Its mass will remain the same and its volume will increase.
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
28. What is a cubic centimeter equal to?
a milliliter
29. As the altitude increases within Earth's stratosphere, air temperature generally
(A) increases, only
(B) decreases, only
(C) increases, then decreases
(D) decreases, then increases
(A) increases, only
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30. In which atmospheric layer is most water vapor found?
(A) troposphere
(B) mesosphere
(C) thermosphere
(D) stratosphere
(A) troposphere
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31. According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, the most abundant gas in the troposphere is
(A) oxygen
(B) water vapor
(C) nitrogen
(D) carbon dioxide
(C) nitrogen
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32. Which layer of the atmosphere has the greatest density?
(A) thermosphere
(B) stratosphere
(C) mesosphere
(D) troposphere
(D) troposphere
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33. Earth's hydrosphere is best described as the
(A) liquid outer layer of Earth
(B) solid outer layer of Earth
(C) magma layer located below Earth's stiffer mantle
(D) gaseous layer extending several hundred kilometers from Earth into space
(A) liquid outer layer of Earth
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34. What is the lithosphere?
the crust and the uppermost mantle, which is the hard and rigid outer layer of the Earth.
35. At which phase are things on earth most dense and least dense?
• most dense - solid
• least dense - gas
36. How could contour lines on the map indicate a steep cliff?
the contour lines would be close together
37. What do contour lines measure?
the height above sea level for that location
38. How can you tell which way a stream is flowing by the contour lines?
the V bend in the contour line points upstream
39. What is a natural view of the Earth's surface generated from a topographic map? (natural view - when you're standing horizontal of it)
a profile
40. When the time of day for a certain ship at sea is 12 noon, the time of day at the prime Meridian (0o longitude) is 5 p.m. What is the ship's longitude?
(A) 75oW
(B) 75oE
(C) 45oE
(D) 45oW
(A) 75oW
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41. According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, the location of Slide Mountain is:
(A) 74o 25'N, 42oW
(B) 42oN, 74o 25'W
(C) 42oN, 74oW
(D) 42o 25'N, 74o 45' W
(B) 42oN, 74o 25'W
42. According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, what is the straight-line distance in kilometers from Elmira, New York, to Buffalo, New York?
(A) 120 km
(B) 190 km
(C) 150 km
(D) 100 km
(B) 190 km
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43. Compared to Jupiter and Saturn, Venus and Mars have greater
(A) orbital velocities
(B) mean distances from the Sun
(C) periods of revolution
(D) equatorial diameters
(A) orbital velocities
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44. How do you find the elevation of a hilltop?
hill top = highest contour + contour interval - 1
45. How do you find the elevation of a lakebed/depression?
depression = lowest contour - contour interval + 1
46. Surface ocean currents curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere because
(A) Earth spins on its axis
(B) Earth travels in an orbit around the Sun
(C) the Moon travels in an orbit around the Earth
(D) the Moon spins on its axis
(A) Earth spins on its axis
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47. What kind of relationship does the altitude of Polaris and the latitude have? (negative, positive, etc.)
positive
48. Which location would have the greatest angle of insolation on June 21?
(A) 50oW 60oN
(B) 70oW 20oN
(C) 50oW 40oN
(D) 70oW 50oN
(B) 70oW 20oN
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49. What does a Focault Pendulum show us?
rotation of the Earth
50. What is rotation?
the spinning of an object (planets on their axis)
51. What is revolution?
the movement of a body around another object in an orbital plane
52. What causes the phases of the moon?
revolution of moon around the earth because we see different lighted portions of the moon at different times
53. As seen from New York State, the noon Sun is
(A) directly overheard every day
(C) directly overhead on the first day of spring and fall
(D) directly overhead only on the first day of summer
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54. Which statement best explains why different phases of the Moon can be observed from the Earth?
(A) The Moon moves into different parts of the Earth's shadow.
(B) Differing amounts of the Moon's sunlit surface are seen because the Moon revolves around the Sun.
(C) The size of the Earth's shadow falling on the Moon changes.
(D) Differing amounts of the Moon's sunlit surface are seen because the Moon revolves around the Earth.
(D) Differing amounts of the Moon's sunlit surface are seen because the Moon revolves around the Earth.
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55. The length of an Earth year is based on Earth's
(A) rotation of 15o/hr
(B) revolution of approximately 1o/day
(C) revolution of 15o/hr
(D) rotation of approximately 1o/day
(B) revolution of approximately 1o/day
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56. What are the 3 laws of planetary motion?
• 1) The earth travels in an elliptical orbit around the sun.
• 2) line joining each planet with the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal time
• 3) period of revolution is proportional to the average distance between the planet and the sun
57. What is orbital velocity?
The speed a planet travels around the sun.
58. What are the dates of the equinoxes and solstices?
• Equinox - Sept. 22, March 21
• Solstice - Dec. 31, June 21
59. What date and time will a person in Vestal have the longest shadow?
Dec 21 at sunrise and sunset
60. Why do the locations of sunrise and sunset vary in a cyclical pattern throughout the year?
(A) The Sun's orbit around the Earth is an ellipse.
(B) The Earth rotates on a tilted axis while revolving around the Sun.
(C) The Earth's orbit around the Sun is an ellipse.
(D) the Sun rotates on a tilted axis while revolving around the Earth.
(B) The Earth rotates on a tilted axis while revolving around the Sun.
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
61. What is the altitude of Polaris equal to?
the latitude in the northern hemisphere
62. What would happen on earth if the axial tilt were increased to 30 degrees?
We would experience colder winters and hotter summers.
63. If the axis of Earth were not tilted relative to the plane of its orbit around the Sun, the result would be
(A) a greater number of hours in a day
(B) an equal number of hours of daylight at most locations
(C) a reversal of polar and equatorial climates
(D) a greater number of days in a year
(B) an equal number of hours of daylight at most locations
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64. What are 3 factors controlling the intensity of insolation?
• -latitude
• -length of daylight
• -which season it is
65. What is insolation time lag?
time elapsed between most intense radiation and highest air temperatures
it is when radiation is emitted from earth's surface
67. What is the relationship between the angle of insolation and duration of insolation?
The higher the angle of insolation, the longer period of daylight (duration).
68. Where does pollution come from and what sources cause the most pollution?
cars, powerplants, factories

humans cause the most pollution
69. What do closely spaced contour lines and spaced contour lines mean?
closely spaced lines indicate steep slopes and lines spaced farther apart indicate a flatter surface
70. What proves the earth is round?
Photos from space or the changing angle of polaris
71. Where would Polaris be in the sky if you were at New York City at 41oN?o
41o
72. In New York State, solar noon occurs each day when the
(A) clock reads 12 o'clock noon
(D) Sun is at its highest altitude
(D) Sun is at its highest altitude
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73. Why are constellations observed from New York State different throughout the year?
(A) Earth moves in its orbit
(B) Earth is tilted on its axis
(C) the stars move around Earth as shown by star trails
(D) the lengths of day and night are different
(A) Earth moves in its orbit
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74. If the Earth's rate of rotation decreased, there would be an increase in
(A) number of observable stars at night
(B) length of time for one Earth day
(C) length of seasons
(D) Sun's angle of insolation at noon
(B) length of time for one Earth day
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75. A sundial measures time based upon the position of the Sun in the sky. This time is called
(A) standard time
(B) mean time
(C) Greenwich time
(D) apparent solar time
(D) apparent solar time
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76. Which planet has an orbit with an an eccentricity most similar to the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit around Earth?
(A) Pluto
(B) Saturn
(C) Earth
(D) Jupiter
(B) Saturn
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77. In a geocentric model, what object is everything rotating around?
(A) Earth
(B) Polaris
(C) Moon
(D) Sun
(A) Earth
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78. An observer on Earth determines that the apparent diameter of the Moon as viewed from Earth varies in a cyclic manner. The best explanation for this observation is that the
(A) atmospheric transparency of the Moon changes
(B) Moon's orbit is elliptical
(C) Moon is rotating
(D) distance between the Moon and the Sun changes
(B) Moon's orbit is elliptical
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
79. What causes a solar eclipse?
the moon's shadow blocks sunlight from reaching Earth (new moon phase)
80. The Milkey Way galaxy is best described as
(A) a type of solar system
(B) a region in space between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
(C) a spiral-shaped formation composed of billions of stars
(D) a constellation visible to everyone on Earth
(C) a spiral-shaped formation composed of billions of stars
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81. What causes a lunar eclipse?
the earth's shadow blocks sunlight from reaching the moon (full moon phase)
82. What is the Coriolis Effect?
freely moving objects are deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere and toward the left in the southern hemisphere by the earth's rotation
83. A light year is
(A) the time it takes light to go once around the Earth's orbit
(B) the time it takes light to travel one year
(C) the distance traveled by light in one year
(D) the distance the Earth moves in one year
(C) the distance traveled by light in one year
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84. A light-emitting object moving toward an observer will appear to the observer to be emitting waves that are
(A) longer than normal
(B) shorter than normal
(C) unchanged
(B) shorter than normal
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85. According to the big bang theory, the universe began as an explosion and is still expanding. This theory is supported by observations that the stellar spectra of distant galaxies who a
(A) shift toward the red end of the spectrum
(B) concentration in the green portion of the spectrum
(C) shift toward the blue end of the spectrum
(D) concentration in the yellow portion of the spectrum
(A) shift toward the red end of the spectrum
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86. The farther a planet is located from the, the
(A) shorter its period of rotation
(B) longer its period of revolution
(C) longer its period of rotation
(D) shorter its period of revolution
(B) longer its period of revolution
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87. Which statement best describes galaxies?
(A) They are similar in size to the solar system.
(B) They contain only one star but hundreds of planets.
(C) They may contain billions of stars in a space much larger than our solar system.
(D) They may contain a few hundred stars in a space slightly larger than the solar system.
(C) They may contain billions of stars in a space much larger than our solar system.
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88. What celestial phenomenum most affects radio communication and other electrical atmospheric changes for us on earth?
(A) meteorites entering the atmosphere
(B) solar eclipses
(C) solar flares
(D) lunar eclipses
(C) solar flares
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89. As the sun ages it will be composed of
(A) more helium and less hydrogen
(B) more oxygen and less carbon
(C) less oxygen and more carbon
(D) more hydrogen and less helium
(A) more helium and less hydrogen
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90. Which of the following stars is least bright?
(A) the sun
(B) a red giant
(C) a white dwarf
(D) a blue supergiant
(C) a white dwarf
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91. Bernard's Star has a surface temperature of about
(A) 10,000oC
(B) 5000oC
(C) 300oC
(D) 3000oC
(D) 3000oC
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92. In which list are the forms of electromagnetic energy arranged in order from longest to shortest wavelengths?
(A) infrared rays, radio waves, blue light, red light
(B) radio waves, infrared rays, visible light, ultraviolet rays
(C) x ray, infrared rays, blue light, gamma rays
(D) gamma rays, x rays, ultraviolet rays, visible light
(B) radio waves, infrared rays, visible light, ultraviolet rays
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93. What are the moon's periods of revolution and rotation?
they are both 27.3 days
94. Why do we always see the same side of the moon?
they periods of revolution and rotation are the same
95. When electromagnetic energy travels from air into water, the waves are bent due to the density differences between the air and water. This bending is called
(A) absorption
(B) reflection
(C) scattering
(D) refraction
(D) refraction
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96. At which temperature would an object radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy?
(A) the temperature of the North Pole on December 21 (-60oF)
(B) room temperature (293 K)
(C) the temperature at the stratopause (0oC)
(D) the boiling point of water (100oC)
(A) the temperature of the North Pole on December 21 (-60oF)
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97. When would a person at the equator cast no shadow? (Date & Time)
Solar Noon on March 21 or Sept 23
98. Which characteristics of a building material would provide the most energy-absorbing exterior covering for a house?
(A) light colored and smooth textured
(B) light colored and rough textured
(C) dark colored and rough textured
(D) dark colored and smooth textured
(C) dark colored and rough textured
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99. Pieces of lead, copper, iron, and grant, each having a mass of 1 kilogram and a temperature of 100oC, were removed from a container of boiling water and allowed to cool under identical conditions. Which piece most likely cooled to room temperature first?
(B) granite
(C) iron
(D) copper
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100. During which process does heat transfer occur because of density differences?
(B) convection
(C) conduction
(D) reflection
(B) convection
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101. What is the relationship between the number of sunspots and the amount of magnetic activity in the sun?
The more sunspots, the more magnetic acitivty.
102. Energy is transferred from the Sun to Earth mainly by
(A) electromagnetic waves
(B) density currents
(C) red shifts
(D) molecular collisions
(A) electromagnetic waves
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103. Which phase change requires water to gain 2260 Joules per gram?
(A) water vapor condensing
(B) solid ice melting
(C) liquid water vaporizing
(D) liquid water freezing
(C) liquid water vaporizing
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
104. What is potential energy?
stored energy
105. The primary method of heat transfer in a solid iron bar is
(A) conduction
(B) convection
(C) absorption
(A) conduction
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106. Liquid water can store more heat energy than an equal amount of any other naturally occurring substance because liquid water
(A) can be changed into a solid or a gas
(B) covers 71% of Earth's surface
(C) has its greatest density at 4oC
(D) has the higher specific heat
(D) has the higher specific heat
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
107. What is kinetic energy?
the energy of motion
108. Why are the beaches that are located on the souther shore of Long Island often considerably cooler than nearby inland locations on hot summer afternoons?
(A) A land breeze develops due to the lower specific heat of water and the higher specific heat of land
(B) The beaches are farther from the Equator than the inland locations are.
(C) The beaches are closer to the equator than the inland locations are.
(D) A sea breeze develops due to the higher specific heat of water and the lower specific heat of land.
(D) A sea breeze develops due to the higher specific heat of water and the lower specific heat of land.
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
109. Which energy transformation occurs as a rock falls freely from the top of a vertical cliff?
(A) The rock's potential energy and kinetic energy decrease.
(B) The rock's potential energy and kinetic energy increase.
(C) The rock's potential energy decreases and the rock's kinetic energy increases.
(D) The rock's potential energy increases and the rock's kinetic energy decreases.
(C) The rock's potential energy decreases and the rock's kinetic energy increases.
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
110. How many Joules does it take for heat of fusion and heat of vaporization?
• to melt or freeze - 334 J/g
• to vaporize or condense - 2,250 J/g
111. Compared to dull and rough rock surfaces, shiny and smooth rock surfaces are most likely to cause sunlight to be
(A) refracted
(B) scattered
(C) reflected
(D) absorbed
(C) reflected
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
112. A gradual increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide would warm Earth's atmosphere because carbon dioxide is a
(A) good reflector of ultraviolet radiation
(B) poor absorber of infrared radiation
(C) good absorber of infrared radiation
(D) poor reflector of ultraviolet radiation
(C) good absorber of infrared radiation
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
113. How do you calculate Heat of fusion and Heat of vapor?
• HF = (x)grams x 334 J/g
• HV = (x)grams x 2,260 J/g

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 Author: eatenbread ID: 64175 Filename: Midterms: Earth Science for 8th Grade SP New York Updated: 2011-02-05 04:54:51 Tags: Midterms Earth Science 8th Grade SP New York Folders: Description: Midterms: Earth Science for 8th Grade SP New York Show Answers:

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