Physics Mid Term Modules 1-3

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Physics Mid Term Modules 1-3
2010-03-01 17:45:01
Physics Radiology Atomic Structure Matter

Definitions and Study Questions
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  1. Helium, neon, and argon are not known to bond with any other gasses; as such they are called:
    Inert Gasses
  2. What is a hydrogen atom with one neutron called?
  3. what is the atomic number of an atom with three protons, five neutrons, and five electrons?
  4. which of the following has the least mass?
  5. An alpha particle is not an atom becuase it has no?
  6. what is a particle of energy that has no mass?
    a gamma ray
  7. what electrical charge do stable atoms have?
  8. in stable atoms, there are equal numbers of
    protons and electrons
  9. during the process of decay, a radioactive element emits
    particles of mass and energy
  10. if an atom of a stable element loses one e-, its electrical charge will change to?
  11. what are the fundamental particles?
    • protons
    • neutrons
    • electrons
  12. what fundamental particle has an atomic mass of 0?
  13. the atomic number of an element is the number of?
    protons in the nucleus
  14. atomic mass is measured by the
    sum of protons, electrons and neutrons
  15. neutrons play an important role in adding stability to
    the nucleus
  16. what are atoms that have a diff number of neutrons but the SAME number of protons?
  17. what are atoms called taht have the same number of neutrons but a DIFF number of protons?
  18. what are atoms called that have the same number of neutrons and protons but different binding energy?
  19. what holds the nucleus together?
    strong nuclear force
  20. binding energy is the energy needed to
    break up a nucleus
  21. what is the maximum number of electron shells possible in an atom?
  22. all stable atoms have the same number of
    protons and electrons
  23. what charge does an atom normally have?
  24. the outermost shell of an atom can have a maximum of
    8 electrons
  25. what keeps electrons in the shells of their atoms?
    electron binding energy
  26. what electrical charge does an atom with an extra electron have?
  27. what electrical charge does an atom that is short one electron have?
  28. through the process of ionic bonding, two atoms
  29. what is the process called in which two atoms bond by sharing some of the same electrons?
    covalent bonding
  30. each element has only one unique type of atom in it with a set number of
  31. atoms that have 8 electrons in their outermost shell
    are less likely to form ions that combine with other atoms
  32. atoms in each period of the PTOE have the same number of
    electron shells
  33. what are combinations of elements that are bonded together called?
  34. in the process of radioactive decay, particles and energy are irradiated from
    the nucleus
  35. emission of particles and energy during the process of radiation is called
    electromagnetic energy
  36. photons are emitted in
    gamma rays
  37. what is the name of the particle that is made of two protons bound to two neutrons?
    alpha particle
  38. what is the electrical charge of beta particles?
  39. the SI unit used to measure 1 decay event per second is called
    Bq (Becquerel)
  40. the nucleus of every atom has at least one
  41. two atoms with an identical number of electrons and protons but a different number of neutrons are called?
  42. the protons and neutrons are held together in the nucleus of an atom by
    binding energy
  43. what is the term for the atoms of 2 diff elements bonded together in molecules?
  44. an ionic bond exists between what?
    a positive and negative ion
  45. radioactivity is the emission of energy and particles from
    the nucleus
  46. what is a true energy ray?
    gamma ray, its all energy (alpha and beta are particle beams)
  47. what is a hydrogen atom with a negative charge called?
    an ion
  48. which number is always bigger in elements, excluding isotopes?
    atomic mass (protons + neutrons)
  49. sodium chloride is an example of?
    a compound
  50. atoms of carbon12 have more of what kind of particle than atoms of carbon14?
    neutrons, 12 and 14 protons
  51. compounds are formed of ?
    two or more diff elements
  52. what part of an atom changes immediately when a radioactive atom decays?
    the nucleus
  53. photons have which of the following?
    energy, mass, velocity (all of the above)
  54. alpha particles from a radioactive atom are?
    2 protons and 2 neutrons
  55. x-rays are one type of?
    electromagnetic energy
  56. Ancient Greeks
    air, water, earth, fire
  57. Dalton, early 1800's
    seperated elements based on mass

    led to medeleev's development of the periodic table of elements
  58. rutherford 1911
    theory was- dense, positive nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negative electrons
  59. Bohr 1913
    atom like a mini solar system

    this theory revised since then but basics still applicable
  60. schrodinger (bohr also)
    • foundation of modern physics
    • quantum physics or wave mechanics
  61. quantum physics
    • electrons cannot be divided into smaller parts
    • protons and neutrons made up of quarks
    • M theory (string theory)
  62. M theory (string theory)
    • links quantum physics and relativity
    • says that electrons and quarks aren't really particles, but loops of vibrating strings
  63. definition of quark
    smaller sub-nuclear structure that makes up protons and neutrons
  64. mass of a proton
    1836 times greater than an electron
  65. mass of a neutron
    1838 times greater than an electron
  66. Electron shells
    • K-Q
    • 1-7
    • electron capacity = 2n2 n= number of orbit (k=1, q=7)
  67. octet rule
    8 electrons allowed in outer shell
  68. PTOE
    Horizontal periods= elements that have the same number of electron shells

    Vertical Groups= have the same number of electrons in their outer (valence) shell
  69. electromagnetic energy
    • results from acceleration of a charge
    • EM radiation can travel through a medium or vaccuum
    • wave\particle duality
    • excitation\ionization (excitation= energy transferred to a higher e- shell)
  70. all about Alpha particles
    • positive charge
    • a type of ionizing\particulate radiation
    • associated with radioactive decay in nucleus
    • equivalent to a helium nucleus
    • emitted from very large elements (huge mass, large particle)
    • lose energy rapidly to surrounding e- when the interact with matter, causing ionization of tissue.
    • when it comes to rest it attracts 2 free electrons, making helium gas
  71. all about Beta Particles
    • negative charge
    • emitted from nucleus of radioactive atoms
    • atomic mass near 0, light particles
    • come from radioactive decay in nucleus
    • more penetrating than alpha particles
    • when they transfer kinetic energy, they combine with an atom in the tissue and neutralize the atom, losing its negative charge
  72. all about beta particles cont'd
    • likened most closely to e-, atomic mass almost the same but origin is different
    • moves faster than alpha particles, wouldn't be stopped by paper.
  73. definition of nucleon
    proton and neutron together
  74. how is a hertz (Hz) defined?
    One cycle per second
  75. the bending of light rays through a prism is called?
  76. what do x-rays, gamma rays and visible light all have in common?
    they all have photons
  77. what three things are true of electromagnetic energy?
    • has photons
    • has varying levels of energy
    • moves at the speed of light
  78. frequency is determined by
    the number of waves in one second
  79. out of AM radio, FM radio, infrared and visible light... which has the longest wavelength?
    AM radio
  80. what causes frequency to rise?
    as a wavelength shortens
  81. what does frequency times wavelength equal?
  82. what is is the SI unit for frequency?
  83. Gamma rays originate in?
    the nucleus
  84. define amplitude
    the height of a wave, a wave with a large amplitude is generally stronger than a wave with a small amplitude
  85. define frequency
    the number of waves that go by in a second
  86. what is the speed of light?
    approx 3*108 m\sec (186000 mph)
  87. what is the equation for calculating energy?
    e (energy) = h (Planck's constant) x frequency (in Hz)
  88. in electromagnetic energy, what is vibrating?
    energy itself
  89. electromagnetic energy is a combination of
    electric and magnetic fields
  90. electromagnetic energy in a vacuum would normally?
    travel in a straight line
  91. a characteristic of photons is that they all have
    no mass
  92. the height of a wave is called
  93. what is not true of electromagnetic energy?
    that it has a constant frequency
  94. the number of waves that go by in one second is called
  95. what is the frequency of a wave if only one-tenth of it goes by in 1 second?
    0.10 cycle