Chapter 2

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briannacesena
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64228
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Chapter 2
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2011-02-05 16:38:29
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  1. Anti-Federalist
    Those who favored strong state governements and a weak national government; opposed the ratification of the U.S. Constitution
  2. Articles of Confederation
    The compact among the thriteen orginal states that was the basis for the government. Written in 1776, the Articles were not ratified by all the states until 1781
  3. Bill of Rights
    The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, which largely guarantee specific rights and liberties
  4. Checks and Balances
    A government structure that gives each of the three branches of government some degree of oversight and control over the others of the states
  5. Committees of Correspondence
    Organizations in each of the American colonies created to keep colonists abreast of developments with the British; served as powerful molders of public opinion against the British
  6. Confederation
    Type of govenment where the national government derives its powers from the states; a league of independant states
  7. Constitution
    A document establishing the structure, functions, and limitations of a government
  8. Declaration of Independence
    Document drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 that proclaimed the right of the Ameican colonies to seperate from Great Britain
  9. Enumerated powers
    Seventeen specific powers granted to Congress under Article I, section 8, of the U.S. Constitution; these powers include taxation, coinage of money, regulation of commerce, and the authority to provide for a national defense
  10. Federal System
    Systems of government where the national government and state governments share some powers, derive all authority from the people, and the powers of the national government are specified in a constitution
  11. The Federalist Papers
    A series of eighty-five political papers written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison in support of ratification of the U.S. Constitution
  12. Federalists
    Those who favored a stronger national govenment and supported the proposed U.S. Constitution; later became the first U.S. political party
  13. First Continental Congres
    Meeting held in Philadelphia from September 5 to October 26, 1774, in which fifty-six delegates (from every colony except Georgia) adopted a resolution in opposition to the Coercive Acts
  14. Full Faith and Credit Clause
    Section of Article IV of the Constitution that ensures judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in any other state
  15. Great Compromise
    A decision made during the Constitutional Convention to give each state the same number of representatives in the Senate regardless of size; representation in the House was determined by population
  16. Implied powers
    Powers derived from the enumerated powers and the Necessary and Proper Clause. These powers are not stated specificaly but are considered to be reasonably implied through the exercise of delegated powers
  17. Mercantilism
    An economic theory designed to increase a nation's wealth through the development of commercial industry and a favorable balance of trade
  18. Necessary and Proper Clause
    The final paragraph of Article I, section 8, of the U.S, Constitution, which gives Congress the authority to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers specified in the Constitution; also called the elastic clasuse
  19. New Jersey Plan
    A framework for Constitution proposed by a group of small states; it's key points were a one-house legislature with one vote for each state, the establishment of the acts Congress as the "supreme law" of the land, and a supreme judiciary with limited power
  20. Second Continental Congress
    Meeting that convened in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775 at which it was decided that an army should be raised and George Washington of Virgina was named commander in chief
  21. Seperation of Powers
    A way of dividing power among three branches of government in which members of the House of Representatives, members of the Senate, the president, and the federal courts are selected by and responsible to different constituencies
  22. Stamp Act Congress
    Meeting of representatives of nine of the thriteen colonies held in New York City in 1765, during which representatives drafted a document to send to the king listing how their rights had been violated
  23. Supremacy Clause
    Portion of Article VI of the U.S. Constitution madating that national law is supreme to (that is, superscedes) all other laws passed by the states or by an other subdivision of government
  24. Three-fifths Compromise
    Agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention stipulating that each slave was to be counted as 3/5 of a person for purposes of determining population for representation in eh U.S. House of Representatives
  25. Virginal Plan
    The first general plan for the Constitution proposed by James Madision and Edmund Randolph. Its key points were bicameral legislature, and executive chosed by the legislature and judiciary also named by the legislature

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