AstronomyTerms1.txt

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KiwiTane
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AstronomyTerms1.txt
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2011-02-07 15:58:18
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Astronomy Terms
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Astronomy Terms for Test1
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  1. The process in which light or other electromagnetic radiation gives up its energy to an atom or molecule. For example, ozone in our atmosphere absorbs ultraviolet radiation.
    absorption
  2. A spectrum showing dark lines at some narrow color regions (wavelengths). The lines are formed by atoms absorbing light, which lifts their electrons to higher orbits.
    absorption-line spectrum
  3. A change in an object's velocity (either its speed or its direction)
    acceleration
  4. A measure of how large an object looks to you. It is defined as the angle between lines drawn from the observer to opposite sides of an object. For example, the angular diameter of the Moon is about 1/2.
    angular size
  5. An easily identified grouping of stars, often part of a larger constellation. For example, the Big Dipper.
    asterism
  6. A distance unit based on the average distance of the Earth from the Sun.
    astronomical unit (AU)
  7. A wavelength band in which our atmosphere absorbs little radiation. For example, on Earth the visible window ranges from about 300 to 700 nanometers, allowing the light we can see with our eyes to pass through the atmosphere.
    atmospheric window
  8. A submicroscopic particle consisting of a nucleus and orbiting electrons. The smallest unit of a chemical element.
    atom
  9. An object that is an ideal radiator when hot and a perfect absorber when cool. It absorbs all radiation that falls upon it, reflecting no light; hence, it appears black. Stars are approximately blackbodies. The radiation emitted by blackbodies obeys Wien's law and the Stefan-Boltzmann law.
    blackbody
  10. A shift in the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation to a shorter wavelength. For visible light, this implies a shift toward the blue end of the spectrum. The shift can be caused by the motion of a source of radiation toward the observer or by the motion of an observer toward the source. For example, the spectrum lines the star toward the earth exhibit a blueshift. (see also Doppler shift)
    blueshift
  11. An imaginary line on the celestial sphere lying exactly above the Earth's equator. It divides the celestial sphere into northern and southern hemispheres.
    celestial equator
  12. An imaginary point on the celestial sphere directly above the Earth's North or South Pole.
    celestial pole
  13. An imaginary sphere surrounding the Earth representing the sky. Ancient astronomers pictured celestial objects as attached to it.
    celestial sphere
  14. A principle of physics stating that the angular momentum of a rotating body remains constant unless forces act to speed it up or slow it down. Mathmatically, conservation of angular momentum states that MVR is a constant, where M is the mass of a body moving with a velocity V in a circle of radius R. One extremely important consequence of this principle is that if a rotating body shrinks, its rotational velocity must increase.
    conservation of energy
  15. A grouping of stars on the night sky. Astronomers divide the sky into 88 constellations.
    constellations
  16. A spectrum with neither dark absorption nor bright emission lines. The intensity of the radiation in such a spectrum changes smoothly from one wavelength to the next.
    continuous spectrum
  17. The appearance of two astronomical objects in approximately the same direction on the sky. For example, if Mars and Jupiter happen to appear near each other on the sky, they are said to be in conjunction. Superior conjunction refers to a planet that is approximately in line with the Sun but on the far side of the Sun from the Earth. Inferior conjunction refers to a planet that lies approximately between the Sun and the Earth.
    conjunction
  18. One part of a coordinate system for locating objects in the sky north or south of the celestial equator. Declination is analogous to latitude on the earth's surface.
    declination
  19. The change in the observed wavelength of radiation caused by the motion of the emitting body or the observer. The shift is an increase in the wavelength if the source and observer move apart and a decrease in the wavelength if the source and observer approach. (see also redshift and blueshift)
    Doppler shift
  20. The times of year, separated by about 6 months, when eclipses are possible. At any given eclipse season, both a solar eclipse and lunar eclipse generally occur.
    eclipse seasons
  21. The path that the Sun appears to make around the celestial sphere as the Earth moves along it's orbit. The path gets it's name because eclipses can occur only when the Moon crosses the ecliptic.
    ecliptic
  22. A general term for any kind of electromagnetic wave.
    electromagnetic radiation
  23. The assemblage of all wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. The spectrum includes the following wavelengths, from long to short: radio, microwave, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X rays and gamma rays.
    electromagnetic spectrum
  24. Wave consisting of alternating electric and magnetic energy. Ordinary visible light is an electromagnetic wave, and the wavelength determines the lights color.
    electromagnetic wave
  25. A low-mass, negatively charged subatomic particle. Electrons orbit the atomic nucleus, but may at times be torn free.
    electron
  26. A geometric figure related to a circle but flattened into an oval shape.
    ellipse
  27. The production of light, or more generally, electromagnetic radiation by an atom or other object.
    emission
  28. A spectrum consisting of bright lines at certain wavelengths separated by dark regions in which there is no light.
    emission-line spectrum
  29. Any of the numerous orbitals that an electron can occupy in an atom or molecule, roughly corresponding to an electron orbit.
    energy level
  30. A fictitious, small, and circular orbit superimposed on another circular orbit and proposed by early astronomers to explain the retrograde motion of the planets.
    epicycle
  31. The time of year when the sun appears to cross the celestial equator. At this time, the number of hours of daylight and night are approximately equal. The vernal and autumnal equinoxes mark the beginning of the spring and fall seasons.
    equinox
  32. The speed an object needs to move away from another body in order not to be pulled back by it's gravitational attraction.
    escape velocity
  33. The planet Venus seen low in the western sky after sunset. (sometimes used for other bright planets.)
    Evening Star
  34. The condition in which the electrons of an atom are not in their lowest energy level (orbit).
    excited
  35. (1)one of 2 points within an ellipse used to generate the elliptical shape. Planets orbit along ellipses with the sun at one focus of the ellipse. (2)a point in an optical system in which light rays are brought together. The location where an image forms in such systems.
    focus
  36. The number of times per second that a wave vibrates.
    frequency
  37. A massive system of stars held together by their mutual gravity. Our Galaxy is the Milky Way.
    galaxy
  38. A group of galaxies held together by their mutual gravitational attraction. The Milky Way belongs to the Local Group galaxy clusters.
    galaxy cluster
  39. Models of the Solar System centered on the Earth. Many of the earliest attempts to describe the Solar System were geocentric in that they supposed that the planets moved around the Earth rather than the Sun.
    geocentric models
  40. The force of attraction that is between 2 bodies and is generated by their masses.
    gravity
  41. The position of an inner Planet (Mercury or Venus) when it lies farthest from the sun on the sky. Mercury and Venus are particularly easy to see when they are at greatest elongation. Objects may be at greatest eastern or western elongation according to whether they lie east or west of the sun.
    greatest elongation
  42. Models of the Solar System centered on the Sun.
    heliocentric models
  43. The tendency of an object at rest to remain at rest and of a body in motion to continue in motion in a straight line at a constant speed.
    inertia
  44. Laws that describe the motion of Planets around the Sun. The first law states that Planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun off-center at a focus of the ellipse. The second law states that a line joining the Planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. The third law relates a Planet's orbit Period, P, to the semimajor access of it's elliptical orbit, a.
    Kepler's three laws
  45. A description of the gravitational force exerted by one body on another. The gravitational force is proportional to the product of the bodies' masses and the inverse square of their separation.
    law of gravity
  46. Electromagnetic energy
    light
  47. A unit of distance equal to the distance light travels in one year. A light-year is roughly 6 trillion miles.
    light-year (ly)
  48. The small cluster or group of several dozen galaxies to which the Milky Way belongs.
    Local Group
  49. The passage of the Earth between the Sun and the Moon so that the Earth's shadow falls on the Moon.
    lunar eclipse
  50. A measure of the amount of material an object contains. A quantity measuring a body's inertia.
    mass
  51. The Galaxy to which the Sun belongs. Seen from the Earth, the Galaxy is a pale, milky white band in the night sky.
    Milky Way Galaxy
  52. A theoretical representation of some object or system.
    model
  53. The illusion that the Moon appears larger when near the horizon than when seen high in the sky.
    Moon illusions
  54. The planet Venus seen in the eastern sky before dawn. (Sometimes applied to other bright planets.)
    Morning Star
  55. A unit of length equal to 1 billionth of a meter and abbreviated nm. Wavelengths of visible light are several hundred nanometers. The diameter of a hydrogen atom is roughly 0.1nm.
    nanometer
  56. A subatomic particle of nearly the same mass as the proton but with no electric charge. Neutrons and protons compose the nuclei of atoms.
    neutron
  57. The law that a body continues in a state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless made to change that state by forces acting on it. (see also inertia)
    Newton's first law of motion
  58. In words, the amount of acceleration, a, that a force, F, produces depends on the mass, m, of the object being accelerated.
    Newton's second law of motion
  59. The law that when two bodies interact, they exert equal and opposite forces on each other.
    Newton's third law of motion
  60. The point on the celestial sphere directly above the Earth's North Pole. Objects on the sky appear to circle around this point.
    north celestial pole
  61. The core of an atom around which the electrons orbit. The nucleus has a positive electric charge and constitutes most of an atom's mass.
    nucleus
  62. The configuration of a planet when it is opposite the Sun in the sky. If a planet is in opposition, it rises when the Sun sets and sets when the Sun rises.
    opposition
  63. A description of an electron's possible location in an atom as it "orbits" the nucleus. At these tiny scales, the wave nature of matter only allows a description of position in terms of probabilities.
    orbital
  64. The shift in an object's position caused by the observer's motion. A method for finding distances based on that shift.
    parallax
  65. The changing illumination of the Moon or other body that causes its apparent shape to change. The following is the cycle of lunar phases: new, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full, waning gibbous, third quarter, waning crescent, new.
    phases
  66. A particle of visible light or other electromagnetic radiation.
    photons
  67. A body in orbit around a star that is large enough to have taken on a round shape, and which has cleared the path of its orbit of all bodies of comparable size.
    planet
  68. The slow change in direction of the pole (rotation axis) of a spinning body or of the orientation of an orbit.
    precession
  69. A positively charged subatomic particle. One of the constituents of the nucleus of an atom along with neutrons.
    proton
  70. A shift in the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation to a longer wavelength. For visible light, this implies a shift toward the red end of the spectrum. The shift can be caused by a source of radiation moving away from the observer or by the observer moving away from the source. For example, if a star is moving away from Earth, its spectrum lines exhibit a redshift. (see also Doppler shift)
    redshift
  71. The ability of a telescope or instrument to discern fine details. Larger-diameter telescopes have greater (that is, better) resolving power.
    resolving power
  72. The drift of a planet westward against the background stars. Normally planets shift eastward because of their orbital motion. The planet does not actually reverse its motion. The change in its direction is caused by the change in the position from which we view the planet as the Earth overtakes and passes it.
    retrograde motion
  73. A coordinate for locating objects on the sky, analogous to longitude on the Earth's surface. Measured in hours and minutes of time.
    right ascension
  74. An imaginary line through the center of a body about which the body spins.
    rotation axis
  75. A body orbiting a planet.
    satellite
  76. The process of observing a phenomenon, proposing a hypothesis on the basis of the observations, and then testing the hypothesis.
    scientific method
  77. A shorthand way to write numbers using ten to a power. Also called "powers-of-ten notation."
    scientific notation
  78. Half the long dimension of an ellipse.
    semimajor axis
  79. The passage of the Moon between the Earth and the Sun so that our view of the Sun is partially or totally blocked.
    solar eclipse
  80. The Sun, planets, their moons, and other bodies that orbit the Sun.
    Solar System
  81. (winter and summer) the beginning of winter and summer. Astronmically the solstice occurs when the Sun is at its greatest distance north (June) or south (December)of the celestial equator.
    solstice
  82. The imaginary point on the celestial sphere directly over the Earth's South Pole.
    south celestial pole
  83. A massive, gaseous body held together by gravity and generally emitting light. Normal stars generate energy by nuclear reactions in their interiors.
    star
  84. The acceleration caused by gravity at the surface of a planet or other body.
    surface gravity
  85. The time between repeated configurations of a planet or moon. For example, the time between oppositions of a planet or between full moons.
    synodic period
  86. The passage of a planet directly between the observer and the Sun. At a transit, we see the planet as a dark spot against the Sun's bright disk. From Earth, only Mercury and Venus can transit the Sun.
    transit
  87. The largest astronomical structure we know of. The Universe contains all matter and radiation and encompasses all space.
    Universe
  88. The cluster of galaxy clusters in which the Milky Way is located. The Local Group is one of its members.
    Virgo Supercluster
  89. The part of the electromagnetic spectrum that we can see with our eyes. It consists of the familiar colors violet, blue, green, yellow, orange and red, extending from about 400 nm to 700 nm.
    visible spectrum
  90. The distance between wave crests. It determines the color of visible light.
    wave length
  91. The theory that electromagnetic radiation may be treated as either a particle (photon) or an electromagnetic wave.
    wave-particle duality
  92. Visible light exhibiting no color of its own but composed of a mix of all colors. Sunlight and many artificial light sources are "white".
    white light
  93. A relation between a body's temperature and the wavelength at which it emits radiation most intensely. Hotter bodies radiate more intensely at shorter wavelengths.
    Wien's law
  94. A band running around the celestial sphere in which the planets move.
    zodiac

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