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What is Erikson's theory of psychosocial development based on?
- the need of each person to develop a sense of trust in self and others and a sense of personal worth
- Each stage requires resolution of conflict between two opposing forces.
- Must be resolved by individual and each stage must be completed before can move on to
- next stage.
- All conflicts can appear at any time in life and can reemerge
What are the 8 stages of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development?
- school age
- young adulthood
- middle adulthood
- older adulthood
What are the psychosocial stages and lasting outcomes in the infancy stage of Erikson's theory?
- basic trust vs. basic mistrust
- faith and hope
What are the psychosocial stages and lasting outcomes in the toddler stage of Erikson's theory?
- autonomy vs. shame and doubt
- self control and will power
What are the psychosocial stages and lasting outcomes in the preschool stage of Erikson's theory?
- initiative vs. guilt
- direction and pupose
What are the psychosocial stages and lasting outcomes in the school age stage of Erikson's theory?
- industry vs. inferiority
- method and competence
What are the psychosocial stages and lasting outcomes in the adolescent stage of Erikson's theory?
- identity vs. role confusion
- devotion and fidelity
What are the psychosocial stages and lasting outcomes in the young adulthood stage of Erikson's theory?
- intimacy vs isolation
- affiliation and love
What are the psychosocial stages and lasting outcomes in the middle adulthood stage of Erikson's theory?
- generativity vs. stagnation
- production and care
What are the psychosocial stages and lasting outcomes in the older adulthood stage of Erikson's theory?
- ego integrity vs. despair
- renuncation and wisdom
What is Piaget's theory of cognitive development?
- Based on the theory that children are biological organisms and development follows as they try to make sense of their world.
- Development PRECEDES learning.
- Concerned with how the mind works instead of why.
- *criticism is that he underestimated children and ignored cultural differences
When is Piaget's theory applicable?
birth to age 15
What are the stages of Piaget's theory?
- Concrete operations
- formal operations
What happens in the sensorymotor stage of Piaget's theory?
- birth to 2
- begins with reflexes and gradually
- gets more voluntary
- physical manipulation
- object permanance develops
What happens in the preoperational stage of Piaget's theory?
- 2 to 7
- advancing language and movement;
- egocentric, animistic and magical thinking;
- uses representational thought to learn;
- no cause-and-effect thinking;
- thought is dominated by the senses
What happens in the concrete operations stage of Piaget's theory?
- 7 to 11
- logic begins to be used to solve problems;
- collection and mastery of facts;
- can consider other points of view and is influenced by social constructs;
- language is perfected
What happens in the formal operations stage of Piaget's theory?
- 11 to 15
- logical and manipulation of abstract concepts; morality
What is Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
(all research only done with men) – focuses on hypothetical moral dilemmas – based on Piaget’s stages and occurs in school age and up
- Preconventional – avoiding punishment and gaining
- Conventional – gaining approval, avoiding
- Postconventional – rights,
- justice, personal moral standard
What are the stages of Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
- 1. Preconventional – avoiding punishment and gaining reward
- 2. Conventional – gaining approval, avoiding disapproval
- 3. Postconventional – rights,justice, personal moral standard
What is GIllian's theory of moral development?
states there is a different development of morals for women, based on changes within self instead of cognitive development. Women think in terms of caring and relationships, men think in terms of rules and justice.
What are the stages of Gillian's theory of moral development?
- Preconventional – practical for others and best
- for self, realizing connection to others – individual survival
- Conventional – sacrifice self to fulfill others –
- self sacrifice is goodness
- Postconventional – moral equal of self and others
- – nonviolence, do not hurt self or others
What are the levels of Maslow's hiararchy of needs?
- safety and security
- love and belonging
- self actualization
- Movement along hierarchy is multidirectional and lifelong.
What are the levels of Duvall's family theory?
- 1. Basic needs
- 2. meeting costs and allocating resources
- 3. determining who does what
- 4. ensuring socialization
- 5. establishing ways of interacting that are within acceptable social limits
- 6. having kids
- 7. realting to others
- 8. maintaining morale and values
What is a psychosocial theory of aging?
an attempt to explain aging in terms of behavior, personality and attitude change, development is a lifelong process with transitions
Who founded the continuity theory of aging?
Havinghurst - after founding the activity theory
What is the Continuity theory of aging?
- Suggests that personality is developed by old age and people don’t change so their roles/life satisfaction remain consistant. Elderly retain same
- coping skills they have always had
What are the four personality types of the Continuity theory of aging?
- Integrated - have adjusted well to aging
- Armored-defended - continue the roles they had in middle age
- Passive dependent - highly dependent or disinterested
- Unintegrated - fail to cope at all
Who founded the activity theory of aging?
Havinghurst and Albrecht
What it the Activity theory of aging and what is a criticism of it?
- Remaining occupied and involved is a necessary part of a satisfying late life.
- Activity is associated with psychosocial health, inactivity negatively impacts life quality and hastens aging
Criticism – does not consider constraints in choices (physical, economic, social)
Who founded the disengagement theory of aging?
Cummings and Henry
What is the Disengagement theory of aging?
- Aging is characterized by gradual disengagement from society and relationships.
- Think that separation is desired and it helps to maintain social equilibrium.
- Gives elderly time for reflection
Who founded the person-environment-fit of aging?
What is the person-environment-fit theory of aging?
Introduced functional competence in relation to environment
Function is affected by ego strength, mobility, health, cognition, sensory perception, and the environment and can change as one ages.
Useful for appropriate environments for seniors
Who founded the gerotranscendence theory of aging?
What is the gerotranscendence theory of aging?
Proposes that aging individuals undergo a cognitive transformation from materialistic, rational perspective to oneness with the universe.
- Success includes outward focus, acceptance of impending death, substantive relationships, intergenerational connectedness and oneness with
Who developed the Selective optimization with compensation theory of aging?
What is the selective optimization with compensation of aging?
Individuals learn to cope with the functional losses of aging through processes of selection, optimization and compensation
Positive coping process that facilitates successful aging.
Critical life points are morbidity, mortality and quality of life
Who developed Behaviorism?
What is Behaviorism?
- Changes in behavior are a result of an individual's response to events that happen in their environment
- Stimulus-response patterns are reinforced and the individual is programmed to respond
Who developed the social learning theory?
What is the social learning theory?
- People learn new behavior by watching other people (modeling)
- People have an intrinsic reward system
- 4 steps to modeling - attention, retention, reproduction, motivation
Who developed the social development theory?
What is the social development theory?
States that development cannot be separated from social and cultural context. Children have more ability to learn in this than Piaget’s theory.
Learning pulls development and is led by experiences.
- Zone of proximal development – distance between actual and potential development, children are pulled through by interaction with others and
Scaffolding – guidance given by others in this zone.
What is the stochastic theory?
episodes that occur during life cause random cell damage
What is the nonstochastic theory?
aging is a sequence of predetermined events that happen to all organisms in a predetermined framework
What is free radical theory?
Aging is due to oxidative metabolism and the effects of free radicals (products) reacting and causing cellular damage.
- Free radicals cause: cellular damage to DNA; lipid oxidation that damages cell membranes; DNA strand breaks and modifications that cause
- gene modulation
What is lipofuscin?
- an age pigment composed of lipids and proteins and caused by free radicals– a nondegradable material that decreases lysosome function and impacts
- already disabled mitochondria.
What is wear and tear theory?
Over time cumulative changes in cells age and damage cellular metabolism.
- Some evidence that excessive wear and tear due to exercise may accelerate aging by causing
- increased free radical production
What is programmed aging theory?
Cells divide until they can no longer and then undergo apoptosis
What is the immunologic/autoimmune theory of aging?
aging is due to faulty immunological function that is linked to general well being
Who developed the functional consequences theory?
What is the functional consequences theory?
- Designed to provide a guiding framework that would address older adults with physical impairment and disability.
- States that aging adults experience environmental and biopsychosocial consequences that impact functioning.
- Assumes that quality of life is integrated with functional capacity and dependency needs.
Nursing’s role is risk reduction to minimize age related disability to enhance safety and quality of living
Who developed the theory of thriving?
What is the theory of thriving?
Failure to thrive results in a discord between the individual and his/her environment and relationships.
- Nurses identify and modify factors
- that contribute to disharmony among those elements
What is heritage?
encompasses a person's ethnicity, nationality, religion and culture
What is race (ethnicity)
- emphasizes physical properties and biological heredity. Race is a social construct and people of the same race can be biologically different.
- 4 races recognized by the census - white, black, native american, pacific islander
What is ethnicity?
a collective identity, a sense of uniqueness within society, distinction from nonmembers
What is culture?
an element of ethnicity, shared patterns of values and behaviors that characterize a group
What is a folk healing system?
the beliefs, values, and treatment approaches that are products of cultural development. Can include priests, medicine people, astrologers etc
What are health disparities?
- chasms in health status between the advantaged and the disadvantaged
- major focus of the work of HCP
- low participation of minorities in research leads to disparities
What is transcultural nursing?
- Led by the belief that optimal care for all is an essential cultural value.
- Providing culturally sensitive safe, competent, and meaningful care to people of diverse and similar
- Founded by Leininger