PS Chapter 1&2

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PS Chapter 1&2
2011-02-05 14:39:32
Politics Knowledge Political Theory Beliefs

Understanding the Political World
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  1. What is politics?
    • The exercise of of power
    • Determiniation of who gets what, when, how
    • Public allocation of value
    • Resolution of conflict
  2. Description
    Based on facts and focuses on the "what" questions
  3. Explanation
    Specifies why something happens and provides a reason for why it occurs
  4. Prescription
    Value judgement that indicates what shoul occur
  5. Authority
    Appeal to doc, tradition, or preson that is believed to possess controlling explanation regarding specific issues
  6. Specific Authority
    Parent, teacher, friend, celebrity
  7. General Authority
    Constitutions, leaders, respected books, religious teachings..
  8. Everyone Authority
    Belief held strongly by many other people
  9. Personal thought
    Individual uses own powers of thought for determination
  10. Rationality
    • Knowledge claim is self evident to all people and needs no further justification.
    • Knowledge is based on feeling; it "feels" right
  11. Science
    • Search or regularities
    • Science is empirical in that it is a phenomenon that can be observed
    • Cumulative because it accepts previously established foundations for development of further knowledge
    • Testable: looks for analysis/evidence to support/falsify claim
  12. Comparitive PS
    Focuses on similarities and differences in political processes and structures. Public administration, political policies..
  13. American Politics
    Covers all types of topics as comparitive politics
  14. International politics
    Focus is on political relationsbetween counttries
  15. Political Theory
    • AKA political philosophy
    • Focuses on ideas/debates with political questions
  16. Micropolitics
    Combination of beliefs/actions is the essence of domain of politcal science
  17. Normative Political Knowledge
    Fundamental values/ideas that can be basis of an individuals poltical beliefs and actions. Makes a claim of how things actually are.
  18. Political Ideaology
    • Comprehensive set of beliefs about political world- desireable political goals and best way to achieve goal in western societies.
    • Have 3 ideaologies:
    • 1) Human Nature: "nature vs nurture" we are born with our ideas or are we proucts of our environment
    • 2) Inividual" state, society, highest value is indiviual liberty and freedom of action.
    • 3) Equality: Liberalism, legal equality, material equality
  19. Conservatism
    Attempts to prevent/slow transitions away from a society based on traditional values and soical hierarchy.
  20. Classical Liberalism
    Places highest value on individual freedom and posts that the role of gov is limite. Each person is rational and can use reason to determine laws of nature.
  21. Socialism
    Goal is to provide high quality, equal commons of life for everyone. People are social and caring. Power and policies of state increase material, social, and political equality.
  22. Democratic Socialism
    Egalitarianism is a primary goal and assumes changes can be efffected by a gov that comes to power and rules by democratic means. Does not attempt to plan all aspects of economic system
  23. Evaluative Orientation
    Synthesis of facts and feelings into a judgement about some political phenomenon