Contemporary Issues and Trends: What is family leave?
provides for up to 12 weeks unpaid leave after child birth, adoption, or faster placement, for care of a child, spouse, or parent who is seriously ill.
Contemporary Issues and Trends: What is healthy people 2010?
Agenda for improving health. Two overarching goals: 1. increase the quality and years of healthy life. 2. To eliminate health disparities
What are some contributing factors and trends for infant mortality?
young maternal age, unmarried status, overty, lack of prenatal care, smoking, poor nutrition, smoking/alcohol abuse, maternal health (poor health/hypertension).
Trends: high rate of LBW infants (US is 27th in infant mortality)
What is primary prevention?
Involves health promotion and disease prevention activities to decrease the occurrence of illness and enhance general health and quality of life. Precedes the disease or dysfunction and encourages individual to achieve the optimal level of health possible.
What is secondary prevention?
aimed at early detection of a disease and prompt treatment to either cure a disease or to slow the progression and prevent subsequent disability. Ex: BP screenings, cholesterol screenings.
What is tertiary prevention?
Follows the occurence of a defect or disability and is aimed at preventing disabiltiy through restoration of optimal functioning. Treated to prevent complications and further deterioration.
What is evidence based practice?
Providing care based on evidence gained through research and clinical trials.
What are two of the Perinatal Care core measures?
1.Antenatal steroids: give to patients that are in preterm labor (between 24-32 weeks).
What is meant by the term Standards of care?
The level of practive that a reasonable and prudent nurse would provide.
Give examples of Family organization and structure.
Married parents, married-blended, cohabitating parents, single-parent family, no parent family.
A group of 2 or more persons related by blood, adoption, or emotional commitment who work together to meet life goals and needs.
What is the family systems theory?
Changes occuring in one family member affect entire family. View the family as a unit, understand how members influence and interact with each other.
The family is made up of subsystems. Family is able to create balance between change and stability.
What are some important things to remember about child bearing beliefs and practices?
Consider all aspects of culture: communication, space, thime orientation, and family roles.
What does cultural competency mean?
adaptation of care in a manner that is congruent with the client's culture.
What are some vulnerable populations in healthcare?
What is the normal range of heart rate for a newborn?
What primary changes occur in the cardiovascular system of a newborn?
When umbilical cord is clamped, pulmonary vascular resistance decreases and systemic vascular resistance increases. Listen to HR for full minute.
What is the indication if the newborn is blue and not correcting itself?
Most likely a murmur
What does Tachycardia usually indicate in a newborn?
infection or anemia, hyperthermia, hypovolemia
What is a possible cause of bradycardia in a newborn?
congenital heart block, hyposemia
What is the normal respiratory rate for newborns?
30-60 breaths per minute
What are some signs of respiratory distress?
nasal flaring, retraction of the tissue between the ribs, grunting with respirations, pallor, central cyanosis
What is Vernix Caseosa?
A "cheese like" substance that acts as a protective covering on the baby.
What is acrocyanosis?
blue in extremities. can appear over the first 7-10 days especially with exposure to cold.
What is caput succedancum?
an edematour are of the scalp due to trauma during birth.
What is cephalhematoma?
collection of blood between the skull bone and the periosteum. Does not cross cranial suture lines.
What is a subgaleal hemorrhage?
bleeding into the subgaleal compartment---can cross cranial suture lines
What is desquamation?
peeling of the skin. occurs a few days after birth for term infants, Presence at birth indicated post maturity
What are mongolian spots?
bluish black spots that occur on the exterior surface of the body of an infant. Usually occur in Mediterranean, Latin American, Asian, and African infants.
What are nevi?
"stork bites" appear on upper eyelids, nose upper lips of infants. No clinical significance and usually fade by the second year of life.
What is erythema toxicum?
flea bite dermatitis. lesions in different stages. thought to be an inflammatory response
What are some important functions of the liver in the newborn?
liver produces clotting factors and stores iron for the first few months
What are some important things to know about carb metabolism in newborns?
newborns have an immature carb metabolism and can have trouble regulating blood glucose---should be 40-80 mg/dL. Large for gestational age and small gestational age babies should should have accucheck done.
What is bilirubin?
Yellow pigment created when RBCs breakdown
When is jaundice considered pathologic?
If it appears before 24 hours of age, increases more than 0.5 mg/dl an hour, peaks at greater than 13mg/dL in a term infant, or is associated with anemia/hepatosplenomegaly
What causes jaundice?
when RBCs breakdown they are carried to the liver as unconjugated bilirubin bound to albumin. Some bilirubin is bound converted to conjugated bilirubin and broken down and excreted in the GI. Unconjugated bilirubin stays with albumin and goes into circulation. Liver can't break it down and it gets into baby's skin and causes it to turn yellow.
What is brown fat?
It is a substance unique to newborns. Used by infants to produce heat
What is cold stress?
Increases metabolic rate, O2 demand and caloric consumption