Anatomy Kidney.txt

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Anatomy Kidney.txt
2011-02-05 16:19:11

Kidney and adrenals
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  1. Organization of the kidney
    • the kidney, adrenal gland and the perinephric fat are enclosed in the renal fascia
    • the renal fascia continues onto the ureter and is called the periureteric fat
    • the renal fascia is surrounded by the paranephric fat
  2. vertebral level of kidneys
    • left is T11-L2
    • Right is T12-L3
  3. Renal hilum
    entrance to the kidney
  4. renal sinus
    open area in the kidney occupied by the calyx and pelvis
  5. shape of adrenals
    • right is pyramid shaped
    • left is crescent
  6. Renal arteries
    • arise between L2/L3
    • right renal artery passes posterior to the IVC
    • Renal veins lie anterior to the arteries and the left passes in front of the aorta
  7. Arteries to the ureters from three sources
    • renal artery
    • testicular or ovarian artery
    • abdominal aorta
    • Each vein drains to the renal or testicular veins
  8. Three sources of blood to the adrenal glands
    • superior- from the inferior phrenic artery
    • middle- abdominal aorta
    • inferior- renal arteries
  9. adrenal venous drainage
    • right drains to IVC
    • left drains to left renal vein
  10. lymph from kidney, adrenal, and ureters
    • follow veins and drain
    • lumbar nodes or iliac nodes
  11. Nerves of kidneys and ureters
    • arise from the renal nerve plexus; consists of sypathetics, para and visceral
    • least splancnic abdominal pelvic
    • pain fibers from ureters go retrograde to T11-L2, nerves from the superior hypogastrtic, renal, and abdominal aortic plexus supply the ureters. Pain follows sympathetics
  12. Nerves to adrenal gland
    • celiac plexus and abdominopelvic splanchnic nerves
    • mylenated pre synaptic sypathetics
  13. Area of transplanted kidney
    • pelvic fossa
    • only need short vessels
  14. can have accessory renal arteries from the embryologic ascent of the kidney
    each artery is end organ
  15. metanephric diverticulum
    primordial renal pelvis and ureter
  16. Horseshoe kidney
    lies at the level of L3-L5 because it gets caught on the inferior mesenteric artery