PSY 111 Chap. 5

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PSY 111 Chap. 5
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2011-02-05 17:23:10
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Chapter Test
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Chapter 5 Review for Test #2
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  1. Classical Conditioning
    learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex.
  2. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
    a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response.
  3. Unconditioned Response (UCR)
    an involuntary response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus.
  4. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
    stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus.
  5. Conditioned Response (CR)
    learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus.

    “conditioned reflex”
  6. Operant Conditioning
    voluntary; stuff we do on purpose

    the learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences.
  7. Shaping
    the reinforcement of simple, steps in behavior that lead to a desired, more complex behavior.
  8. Successive approximation
    small steps in behavior, one after the other, that lead to a particular goal behavior.
  9. Extinction
    occurs if the behavior (response) is not reinforced.
  10. Stimulus substitution
    original theory in which Pavlov stated that classical conditioning occurred because the conditioned stimulus became a substitute for the unconditioned stimulus by being paired closely together.
  11. Cognitive perspective
    modern theory in which classical conditioning is seen to occur because the conditioned stimulus provides information or expectancy about the coming of the unconditioned stimulus.
  12. Reinforcement
    reward

    any event or stimulus that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again.
  13. Positive reinforcement
    the reinforcement of a response by the addition or experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus.
  14. Negative reinforcement
    the reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus.

    Ex: taking aspirin for a headache—removal of headache!
  15. Primary reinforcer
    any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst, or touch.
  16. Secondary reinforcer
    any reinforcer that becomes reinforcing after being paired with a primary reinforce, such as praise, tokens or gold stars.
  17. Punishment
    any event or object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again.
  18. Punishment by application
    the punishment of a response by the addition or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus.
  19. Punishment by removal
    the punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus.
  20. How can punishment be more effective?
    1. Punishment should immediately follow the behavior it is meant to punish

    2. Punishment should be consistent

    3. Punishment of the wrong behavior should be paired, whenever possible, with reinforcement of the right behavior.
  21. Continuous reinforcement
    the reinforcement of each and every correct response.
  22. Partial reinforcement effect
    the tendency for a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses to be very resistant to extinction.
  23. Fixed interval schedule of reinforcement schedule
    schedule in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same.
  24. Fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement
    schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for the reinforcement is always the same.
  25. Variable interval schedule of reinforcement
    schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event.
  26. Variable ratio schedule of reinforcement
    schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for each reinforcement is different for each trial or event.
  27. What are the elements of observational learning?
    AMIM

    • Attention
    • Memory
    • Imitation
    • Motivation
  28. Attention
    to learn anything through observation, the learner must first pay attention to the model.
  29. Memory
    the learner must also be able to retain the memory of what was done, such as remembering the steps in preparing a dish that was first seen on a cooking show.
  30. Imitation
    the learner must be capable of reproducing, or imitating, the actions of the model.
  31. Motivation
    the learner must have the desire to perform the action.
  32. Learning/Performance distinction
    referring to the observation that learning can take place without actual performance of the learned behavior.
  33. Observational learning
    learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior.
  34. ABA (applied behavioral analysis)
    modern term for a form of behavior modification that uses shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior or response.
  35. behavior modification
    the use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior.
  36. Biofeedback
    the use of feedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses such as blood pressure and relaxation under voluntary control.
  37. Biological preparedness
    the tendency of animals to learn certain associations, such as taste and nausea, with only one or few pairings to the survival of learning.
  38. CER (conditioned emotional response)
    emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli, such as a fear of dogs or the emotional reaction that occurs when seeing an attractive person.

    may lead to phobias
  39. Conditioned taste aversion
    development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, occurring only after one association.
  40. Discriminative stimulus
    any stimulus, such as a stop sign or doorknob, that provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement.
  41. Extinction
    the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforce (in operant conditioning).
  42. Higher-order conditioning
    occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, causing the neutral stimulus to become a second conditioned stimulus.
  43. Insight
    the sudden perception of relationships among the various parts of a problem, allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly.
  44. Latent learning
    learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful.
  45. Law of Effect
    law stating that if a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated, and if followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated.
  46. Learned helplessness
    the tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past.
  47. Learning
    any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice.
  48. Neurofeedback
    form of biofeedback using brain scanning devices to provide feedback about brain activity in an effort to modify behavior.
  49. Operant conditioning
    voluntary; stuff we do on purpose

    the learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences.
  50. Reinforce
    reward

    any event or stimulus that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again.
  51. Shaping
    the reinforcement of simple steps in behavior that lead to a desired, more complex behavior.
  52. Spontaneous recovery
    the reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred.
  53. Stimulus discrimination
    the tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
  54. Stimulus generalization
    the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response.
  55. Successive approximations
    small steps in behavior, one after the other, that lead to a particular goal behavior.
  56. Token economy
    type of behavior modification in which desired behavior is rewarded with tokens.
  57. Vicarious conditioning
    classical conditioning of a reflex response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person.

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