PSY Chapter 6

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lilvixen11
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64335
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PSY Chapter 6
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2011-02-06 16:37:29
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Chapter Test
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Chapter 6 Review for Test #2
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  1. Information-processing model
    model of memory that assumes the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory in a series of three stages.
  2. Levels-of-processing model
    model of memory that assumes information that is more “deeply processed” or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound of physical characteristics of the word or words, will be remembered more efficiently and for a longer period of time.
  3. Parallel distributed processing (PDP)
    a model of memory in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections.
  4. Semantic network models
    model of memory organization that assumes information is stored in the brain in a connected fashion with concepts that are related stored physically closer to each other than retrieval cue a stimulus for remembering.
  5. Sensory memory
    the very first stage of memory, the point at which information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems.
  6. Short-term memory (STM)
    working memory

    the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used.

    Lasts from 12-30 seconds without rehearsal
  7. Long-term Memory (LTM)
    the system of memory into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently.
  8. Explicit Memory
    memory that is consciously known

    Semantic and episodic memories
  9. Implicit Memory
    memory that is not easily brought into conscious awareness.

    Procedural memory
  10. declarative memory
    • type of long-term memory containing information that is conscious and known.
    • Memory for facts
  11. Procedural
    type of long-term memory including the memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses.

    These memories are not conscious, but are implies to exist because they affect conscious behavior.

    Non-declaritve memory
  12. Episodic Memory
    type of declarative memory containing personal information not readily available to others, such as daily activities and events.
  13. Semantic memory
    type of declarative memory containing general knowledge of language ad information learned in formal education.
  14. recognition memory
    the ability to match a piece of information or a stimulus to a stored image or fact.
  15. Recall memory
    type of memory retrieval in which the information to be retrieved must be “pulled” from memory with very few external cues.
  16. Proactive interference
    memory retrieval problem that occurs when older information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of newer information.

    Ex: problem driving in England after learning in the U.S.
  17. Retroactive interference
    memory retrieval problem that occurs when newer information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older information.
  18. anterograde amnesia
    loss of memory from the point of injury or trauma forward, or the inability to form new long-term memories.

    “senile dementia”
  19. Retrograde amnesia
    loss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backwards, or loss of memory for the past.
  20. Autobiographical memory
    the memory for events and facts related to one’s personal life story (usually after age 3)
  21. Automatic encoding
    tendency of certain kinds of information to enter long-term memory with little or no effortful encoding.
  22. Consolidation
    the changes that take place in the structure and functioning of neurons when an engram is formed.
  23. Constructive processing
    referring to the retrieval of memories in which those memories are altered, revised, or influenced by newer information.
  24. Curve of forgetting
    a graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually.
  25. Decay
    loss of memory due to the passage of time, during which the memory trace is not used.
  26. Distributed practice
    will produce better retrieval than massed practice
  27. Disuse
    another name for decay, assuming that memories that are not used will eventually decay and disappear.
  28. Echoic memory
    the brief memory of something a person has just heard.
  29. Eidetic imagery
    the rare ability to access a visual memory for 30 seconds or more.
  30. Elaborative rehearsal
    a method of transferring information from STM into LTM by making that information meaningful in some way.
  31. Encoding
    the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain’s storage systems.
  32. Encoding failure
    failure to process information into memory.
  33. Encoding specificity
    the tendency for memory of information to be improved if related information (such as surrounding or physiological state) available when the memory is first formed is also available when the memory is being retrieved.
  34. False positive
    error of recognition in which people think that they recognize some stimulus that is not actually in memory.
  35. Flashbulb memories
    type of automatic encoding that occurs because an unexpected event has strong emotional associations for the person remembering it.
  36. Hindsight bias
    the tendency to falsely believe, through revision of older memories to include newer information, that one could have correctly predicted the outcome of an event.
  37. Iconic Memory
    visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second.
  38. Implicit memory
    memory that is not easily brought into conscious awareness.
  39. Infantile amnesia
    the inability to retrieve memories from much before age 3.
  40. Maintenance rehearsal
    practice of saying some information to be remembered over and over in one’s head in order to maintain it in short-term memory.
  41. Memory
    memory that is consciously known.
  42. Memory Trace
    physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed.
  43. Misinformation effect
    the tendency of misleading information presented after an event to alter the memories of the event itself.
  44. Primacy effect
    tendency to remember information at the beginning of a body of information better than the information that follows.
  45. Recency effect
    tendency to remember information at the end of a body of information better than the information ahead of it.
  46. Retrieval
    getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used.
  47. Selective attention
    the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input.
  48. Serial position effect
    tendency of information at the beginning and end of a body of information to be remembered more accurately than information in the middle of the body of information.
  49. Storage
    holding onto information for some period of time
  50. Working memory
    Short-term memory; STM

    the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used.

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