Goverment Test One

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Goverment Test One
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  1. Government
    the formal organization through which policies are made and the state is managed
  2. citizen
    member of the political community, with certain rights and obligations
  3. **politics
    the making of policy; who gets what, when, and how; Lenin summarized as: �kto - kovo,� or �who does what (rules, oppresses, kills) - to whom�
  4. **Functions of Government � as listed in the preamble to the Constitution
    • � Establish justice � est. the rule of law: a just social and political order
    • � Ensure domestic tranquility � keep the peace; prevent rebellion; monopoly on use of force
    • � Provide for the common defense � military, anti-terrorism
    • � Promote the general welfare � do good; this has expanded greatly since 1789
    • � Secure the blessings of liberty � ensure freedoms: ours & our children's
  5. **Types of Government
    • dictatorship � power is held by a small elite; no political challenge to the rulers is allowed; also called authoritarianism; the worst kind is: (Burman)
    • totalitarianism � the state claims total, god-like control over all persons and institutions; no free thought or action is tolerated; e.g. N. Korea, Cuba; also USSR, Nazi Germany, Baathist Iraq
    • monarchy � power is vested in hierarchical kings and queens; can exist under a constitution (Queen of England)
    • democracy � power is held by the people, either directly or through representatives (republic); govt. power is restrained, usually by a constitution (US)
    • anarchy � absence of government; chaos, or minimalist �system;� rare: �nature abhors a vacuum� (Samalia, Iraq after invasion)
  6. the Reformation
    with printed Word, some Christians rejected non- scriptural church doctrines; laypeople felt competent to reject elite control, and to govern their own spiritual affairs
  7. the Enlightenment
    challenged assumptions of personal helplessness to fate or God's will, and the divine right of kings; promoted reason, science, and (eventually) religious tolerance
  8. **social contract theory
    people are free and equal by God-given right; requires that all people give their consent to be governed
  9. **Thomas Hobbes
    wrote in Leviathan that in the �state of nature� life was �solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short;� argued for a powerful government to keep order
  10. **John Locke
    in his Second Treatise on Civil Government, Locke argued that natural law gave each individual inalienable rights: �life, liberty, and property;� for Locke, the social contract allowed citizens to dismiss a government that failed to protect their rights
  11. **direct democracy
    citizens meet to discuss all policy decisions; they abide by majority rule
  12. **indirect democracy
    citizens vote for representatives, who act on their behalf
  13. **republic
    government featuring consent of the governed; a representative or indirect government; originally meant �without a king;� literally, res publica (Lat.), �a public thing�
  14. American Political Culture and the Characteristics of American Democracy
    • political culture � commonly held attitudes, beliefs, and core values about government
    • personal liberty � freedom from governmental interference or discrimination; freedom �from� (negative freedom) and freedom �to� (positive freedom)
    • equality � in political rights and before the law; �one person, one vote�
    • popular consent � government exists by the consent of the governed
    • majority rule � policies & personnel chosen by 50% + 1 (or by plurality, in many elections); in a free society, also protects minority rights
    • popular sovereignty � the right of the people to govern themselves
    • civil society � citizens meeting and expressing their views on public policy, including in non-governmental, not-for-profit, independent settings
    • individualism � allowing individuals to achieve their highest level of development
    • religious faith � US is most God-fearing country; affects politics, society; sizable conservative Christian sub culture
  15. **Changing Demographics of the U.S. Population
    • � racial and ethnic composition � legal/illegal immigration; birth rates
    • � **age cohort composition � Baby Boom, Generation X, Generation Y
    • � families and family size � fewer children, more single parents
    • Implications of These Changes
    • � immigration � cheap labor, hispanization v. assimilation, larger ___________
    • � aging � �______ of America� leading to demographic time bomb for entitlement programs
    • � marriage & children � more absent ________, leading to more poverty, dysfunctions

    • political ideology � coherent set of beliefs and ideals about the purpose and scope of government
    • � oriented toward the masses
    • � simply stated
    • � programmatic: calls for (usually specific) changes
  16. Today�s Ideological Spectrum
    • **Conservatism � government should be limited and diffused; should promote free-market economics, achievement, traditional social values, muscular foreign policy (George W. Bush b/c pro-life and tax cuts)
    • **Liberalism � government should be active and well-funded; it should regulate the economy and promote equality and social change; mostly anti-war (Barack O
    • bama b/c expanding spending budgets, pro-choice, and get rid of don�t ask don�t tell)
    • Libertarianism � government should exist only to provide basic defense and public safety; it should not intrude on economic activity or personal liberty in any way
    • Leftism � government should effect socialism; it should promote great social change, and join in global action to solve global problems; utopian
  17. First Steps Toward Independence
    • **Stamp Act Congress � met in New York in 1765, first official meeting of the colonies; drafted a detailed list of Crown violations of colonists� fundamental rights
    • In 1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act and revised the Sugar Act; but passed the Townshend Acts (1767), which raised taxes on many colonial imports (including tea)
    • Committees of Correspondence � in 1772, set up in the colonies to keep colonists aware of developments with England; hardened public opinion against the British
    • Boston Tea Party � protest of the Tea Act (1773) which established a monopoly on tea
    • Coercive (Intolerable) Acts (1774) � total blockade of Boston Harbor, reinforced the Quartering Act
  18. **The First Continental Congress
    • In Philadelphia, 56 delegates, from every colony except Georgia, met in fall 1774 resolved to oppose the Coercive Acts
    • � drafted a Declaration of Rights and Resolves
    • � **agreed to meet in May 1775 if King George did not give in to their demands
  19. **The Second Continental Congress
    • Fighting broke out April 19, 1775, at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts; the �shot heard round the world� � 8 Minutemen killed, British besieged Boston
    • The Congress met in Philadelphia to organize the colonies for war:
    • � created a Continental army, with George Washington as commander-in-chief
    • � established a committee for foreign relations
    • � authorized the printing of money
    • � adopted last-chance "Olive Branch Petition" to England to avert war; it was rejected
  20. The Declaration of Independence
    • was drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1776; the Declaration proclaimed the right of the American colonies to separate from Great Britain
    • � **Jefferson argued for separation, drawing on earlier philosophers, such as Locke (draws on his writings), who had written South Carolina's first constitution, its 1663 colonial charter
    • � �We hold these truths to be self-evident . . .�
    • � England had denied the colonists personal rights and liberties
    • � Congress ratifies, Jully 4, 1776
  21. The First Attempt at Government: the Articles of Confederation
    • **Articles � compact among the 13 original states as the basis of national government; written in 1776, ratified by the states in March 1781; created a loose association between 13 regions, independent states (British surrendered in October 1781)
    • the national government derived its powers from the states
  22. **Problems Under the Articles of Confederation
    • � the Congress of the Confederation could rarely assemble a quorum of 9 states
    • � Congress had no power to tax, so it had no money to spend
    • � no effective national currency (led to inflation), and no interstate commercial law
    • � no national executive � nobody responsibility to carry out the laws enacted
    • � no national judiciary � no way to resolve conflicts between the states
    • � no strong central government � states could not be forced to abide by national laws
  23. **Shay� Rebellion � in 1786, an army of 1,500 armed and angry farmers marched on the Springfield, Mass. state court to fight foreclosures; stopped by a paid militia; effects:
    • � showed the weakness of the Confederation
    • � showed how the lack of central power limited state sovereignty against threats, in this case, an armed mob
    • � Blamed government corruption, cronyism, onerous taxes
    • � State militias were unable or unwilling to stop them
    • � Eventually rooted by a private Boston militia
  24. **the Virginia Plan
    • used European nation-state model:
    • � Strong central government with 3 branches: legislative, executive, & judicial
    • � 2-house legislature: one chosen by the people, one chosen by ________________
    • � Legislature selects the executive and the judiciary (see British Parliament)
    • � favored larger states, like Virginia and New York
  25. **the New Jersey Plan
    • strengthen the Articles, don't replace them:
    • � 1-house legislature, one vote for each state; representatives chosen by state legislatures
    • � Congress gets power to raise revenues from duties and postal service
    • � Supreme Court, appointed for life, chosen by executive officers
    • � favored smaller states
  26. Constitutional Compromise
    • **the �Great Compromise� took ideas from both VA & NJ plans:
    • � "lower" house � 56 representatives, one for each 40,000 people; elected by the people
    • � lower house originates all bills for raising and spending money
    • � �upper� house � each state has an equal vote; selected by state legislatures
    • � national power is supreme over state government powers
    • �Three-Fifths� Compromise � in counting states' populations for representation in the lower house, slaves would be counted as 3/5 of "all other Persons"
    • Compromise way northern limit power of southern states
  27. The U.S. Constitution
    • �We the People . . .� � national power comes directly from the people
    • �in Order to form a more perfect Union . . .� � acknowledged failure of the Article of Confederation
  28. **The Basic Principles of the Constitution
    • (big ideas) drawn from Locke and Montesquieu
    • Separation of Powers � dividing power among three branches of government
    • Checks and Balances � each branch of government has some oversight and control over the other two; Locke warned against the legislature delegating any of its powers
    • Federal system � power is divided between the state governments and the national government; independent states are bound together in a union
  29. The Articles of the Constitution
    • **Article I: the Legislative Branch
    • � 17 enumerated powers
    • � �necessary and proper� clause (�elastic� clause) allows for:
    • � implied powers
    • **Article II: the Executive Branch
    • � President
    • � diplomacy, appointments, administration, reporting to Congress
    • **Article III: the Judicial Branch
    • � Supreme Court � settles disputes between states
    • � appointed for life, presuming �good behavior�
    • Articles IV through VII
    • � IV � full faith and credit clause
    • � V � how to amend the Constitution
    • � VI � supremacy clause: the national law is supreme over states, etc.; no religious test
    • � VII � How to Ratify the Constitution
  30. The Drive for Ratification
    the Framers requested that the states call special ratifying conventions to consider it; the Second Continental Congress forwarded it to the states, where it was debated
  31. Federalists Versus Anti-Federalists
    • Federalists � wanted a strong central government; supported ratifying the Constitution
    • Anti-Federalists � wanted strong state governments; opposed ratification
    • The Federalist Papers � written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (�Publius�) to promote ratification, for New York newspapers (&VA)
    • **Bill of Rights � first 10 amendments; submitted by Congress to complement the Constitution; some feared that enumerating rights would allow rights not named to be weakened or trampled

    • Formal Methods of Amending the Constitution
    • Article V � two stage process: proposal and ratification
    • **two ways to propose amendments:
    • � approval by 2/3 of the members in both US House and Senate
    • � vote by 2/3 of the state legislatures to have Congress call a constitutional convention
    • two ways to ratify amendments:
    • � approval by 3/4 of the State Legislatures
    • � approval in special ratifying conventions in 3/4 of the states (only one called � for 21st)
  32. Informal Methods of Amending the Constitution
    • judicial interpretation � in Marbury v. Madison, Chief Justice John Marshall declared that the federal courts can nullify acts of Congress when in conflict with the Constitution; has the effect of ultimately amending the Constitution
    • social, cultural, and legal change � the Great Depression and the New Deal brought great changes in the scope of national or federal government and its relationship with the states
    • technology � Constitution must be applied to the Internet, wiretaps, surveillance, etc.
  33. **The Roots of the Federal System
    • federalism � the allocation of power between the national government and the states; see Figs. 3.2 and 3.3
    • federal system � both national and state governments get all authority from the people
    • Unitary system � local and regional governments get their power from a strong central government
  34. **National Powers Under the Constitution
    • Enumerated powers � 17 specific powers granted to Congress in Article 1, sec. 8; include powers to tax, make money, regulate commerce, and provide for national defense
    • Necessary and Proper clause � gives Congress authority to pass all laws needed to carry out its enumerated powers
    • supremacy clause � National law is supreme over state laws; in Article VI
    • implied powers- needed to carry out the 17 powers
  35. **State Powers Under the Constitution
    • few powers are enumerated to the states; under the Articles of Confederation, states had all the power
    • privileges and immunities clause � citizens of every state get the same rights
    • Tenth Amendment � powers not delegated to the national government, or prohibited from the states, are reserved to the states, or to the people
    • reserve (police) powers � those reserved to the states: the states may make laws to protect the public health, safety, and morals of their citizens
  36. **Concurrent and Denied Powers Under the Constitution
    • Denied powers - Those denied to both state and national government
    • Concurrent powers � powers shared by the national and state governments: ability to make and enforce laws, tax, borrow money, establish courts
    • Bill of attainder � a law declaring an act illegal without a judicial trial; a law passed against an individual; can�t be singled out
    • ex post facto laws � laws passed �after the fact,� making a previously legal act illegal, and subject to current penalty
  37. Relations Among the States
    • **Full Faith and Credit clause � contracts and judicial decisions and decrees in one state will be binding and enforceable in all states
    • Extradition of criminals � required in Article IV
    • Supreme Court decides arguments between the states
    • Interstate compacts � originally, were bistate compacts about boundaries; some are about policy or sharing resources, e.g. Drivers License Compact, Emergency Management Assistance Compact
    • Privileges and Immunities Clause- citizens of all states have the same fundamental rights.
  38. **McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
    • � Supreme Court upheld the power of the national government
    • � ruled that Congress had the implied power to create a national bank to carry out its �necessary and proper� authority to collect taxes, issue currency, and borrow money
    • � denied the right of a state to tax a U.S.-chartered bank; Marshall: �The power to tax involves the power to destroy.�
    • � States may not tax a federal government entity
  39. **Dual Federalism: the Taney Court, Slavery, and the Civil War
    • dual federalism � the national government should not exceed its enumerated powers; national and state governments should be separate and equally powerful
    • Dred Scott (1857) � Taney Court ruled the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional (first since 1819), made it impossible for Congressional action to prevent the Civil War
    • 16th Amendment (1913) � allowed Congress to enact a national income tax; greatly enhanced national power to tax and spend, and to make many new policies
    • 17th Amendment (1913) � U.S. senators directly elected by the people, no longer by state legislatures; limited party/machine politics, Senate no longer protector of the states
    • Both 16 and 17 allowed for major expansion of national power v. the states.
  40. **Cooperative Federalism: the New Deal and the Growth of National Government
    • The Great Depression � economic failure of 1930s: trade stifled, markets crashed, widespread bank failures, severe high unemployment, trade smothered
    • The New Deal � Franklin Roosevelt (FDR) used unprecedented government intervene-tion to relieve economic woes; �alphabetocracy� included CCC, AAA, NRA, FHA
    • �Court Packing� plan � FDR tried to add 4 justices to the anti-New Deal Supreme Court; the plan failed, but the court then reversed many of its decisions � tried massive government intervention to relieve economic woes
    • **Cooperative federalism � intertwined relationship among state, and local governments; change from �layer cake� to �marble cake� illustration of their responsibilities
    • Federal grants � federal funds given to states for a specific purpose
    • Categorical grants � federal funds given by a formula, with detailed conditions; often, states must �match� federal funds with their own funding
    • The Great Society � Lyndon Johnson (LBJ) funds programs to fight poverty and inequality; included the War on Poverty (�poverty won�); city & state governments often bypassed to directly fund urban community groups
    • Preemption � allows the national government to overrides, or preempts, state or local power
  41. **New Federalism: Returning Power to the States
    • the Reagan Revolution � brakes on federal domestic spending & regulations in the �80s; reversed under Bush I & Clinton with Democratic Congress, 1990-94
    • Block grants � broad grants, for specific activities, but with few strings attached � to fight crime
  42. Federalism and the Supreme Court
    • **Brown v. Board of Education (1954) � struck down official school segregation � didn�t react at first so did again
    • Roe v. Wade (1973) � struck down all states� laws banning, w/Doe v. Bolton, any restrictions on abortion; social/political effects: created pro-life movements, killed the ERA; what if it's overturned?
    • recent devolution � many 5-4 decisions devolving power to the states; see Figure 3.4
    • Printz v. US (1997)- limited federal mandates on local law enforcement
  43. **The Evolution of State and Local Governments
    • states are the basic units which
    • � establish local governments, and
    • � are the building blocks of the federal government
    • states and localities grew from part-time to full-time enterprises; grew to do more; also, federal initiatives required S&LGs to do more
  44. State Governments
    • �It varies from state to state� � different practices, policies; �laboratories of democracy�
    • state constitutions � predated, influenced federal constitution; more easily revised
    • **Progressive movement � fought machine politics, advocated democratic reforms; included Gov./Sen. Robert M. LaFollette, Pres. Teddy Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson
  45. State Legislatures � originally envisioned as part-time �citizen legislaters,� the most powerful state institution; now more professional, more full time; major activities:
    • � write laws: criminal, regulatory, commercial laws; committee, caucus work
    • � pass budgets
    • � local concerns, constituent services
    • **Sunset law � sets a date for a program to expire, unless reauthorized by the legislature
    • **Term limits � restrictions on how long an individual may serve in elected offices; in MI, 6 yrs. (3 x 2) for representatives, 8 yrs. (2 x 4) for senators � congress has none
    • one-person, one-vote � equitable representation by population in state legislatures
  46. **Governors
    • elected (usu. 4 yrs.) chief executives in state governments; major activities:
    • � establish agenda � submit bills, bully pulpit
    • � submit & execute budgets; also issue bonds
    • � agency & board appointments; atop the administration, patronage
    • Veto � governor's authority to void a bill that has been passed by the legislature; usually can be overridden by a 2/3 vote in both legislative chambers
    • **Line item veto � governor's authority to delete part of a bill, especially one that involves taxing or spending � president does not have power
    • criminal justice powers: pardon, commutation, parole (usu. w/board), extradition
  47. Elections and Political Parties
    • statewide elections are partisan, but usually not as ideological as national elections
    • the Solid South � the Democratic Party dominated southern politics from the Civil War through most of the 20th century; now as bipartisan as most of the country
    • watersheds � 1930s, 1964, 1974, 1994; end of liberal-era Democratic dominance
  48. **Direct Democracy
    • Only at State Level
    • Direct initiative � voters enact a law, by ballot measure; bypass legislature and governor (see Table 4.3, also for others) � petition to get on ballot
    • Indirect initiative � legislature offers a ballot measure for voters to enact
    • direct referendum � voters veto a bill passed by the legislature
    • Recall � voters remove an officeholder (politician) before the next scheduled election; rare; in18 states
  49. Local Governments
    • **Charter � specifies a municipality�s basic structures, procedures, and scope of services
    • Dillon�s Rule � local governments get their authority from state governments
  50. State Executives and Legislatures
    • Mayor � chief elected executive city official
    • city council � city�s legislature
    • Manager � professional executive hired to administer city or county operations
    • elections � can be district-based or at-large
    • town meeting � all eligible voters meet to approve budgets and ordinances
    • **political machine � an organization trading votes and political support for services or jobs
    • Sunshine Laws require government meetings and records to be open to the public (not behind closed doors)
  51. State Finances
    • states have been getting about 1/4 of their funding from the federal government; other significant state revenue sources are income taxes, sales taxes, and assorted fees
    • **Progressive tax � level of taxes increases with income, wealth, or the ability to pay
    • **Regressive tax � takes a greater percentage of means from those with less income, wealth, or ability to pay
  52. Relations with Indian Nations
    • tribes signed treaties between US and what were then independent nations, usually based on military defeat or threat
    • **Domestic Dependent nations � type of sovereignty; tribes are outside the authority of state governments, but rely on the federal government for the definition of their authority � political desgination
    • Trust relationship � legal obligation of the U.S. federal government to protect the interests of Indian tribes
    • Compact � a formal, legal agreement between a state and a tribe; Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 allows states to negotiate casino gambling with tribes

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