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2011-02-05 23:25:29
Jan31A PApril

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  1. Is the middle layer of the adrenal gland and produces Cortisol and Corticosterone
    Zona Fasciculata
  2. stimulate fat and hormone catabolism (break down of fat and proteins). They are meant to help us deal with short term stressful situations; emotional or physical and/or injury. They cause gluconeogenesis, stress resistance and aids with tissue repair. Initially they
    have an anti-inflammatory affect
    Cortisol and Corticosterone
  3. for long periods of time will help sustain belly fat. Health food store were selling vast amounts
    of anti-coritsol supplements, this fad did not last. Additional long periods of time will also cause it to create systemic inflammatory chemicals to float throughout the body and decrease the immune system
  4. is the synthetic version of Corticosterone that your body naturally produces. Excessive amounts will decrease your immune system causing you to get sick easier and will start breaking down the tendons and ligaments causing more problems. Short term bases and not often they are a good hormone but we don’t want to keep them stirred up.
  5. is the 3rd layer of adrenal gland, produces the sex steroids. They are not real strong but are necessary
    producing weak androgens and estrogens.
    Zona Reticularis
  6. is the main androgen of zona reticularis. It converts into testosterone. This is not very important in a man during his premenopausal stage. It is more significant in woman as it produces majority of their testosterone that is required for their body
  7. does positive things along with estrogen it helps maintain muscle mass, burns fat and helps maintain bone density and is responsible for sex drive
  8. when produced is called estradiol which is major in women during menopause
    Adrenal Estrogen
  9. becomes more significant in the steroidal produce of hormones after one goes through menopause as far as estrogens
    Adrenal Glands
  10. means it secretes hormone into a duct. (in case of pancreas that duct would lead into small intestine. It dumps digestive enzymes that break down fats, carbs and proteins
    Exocrine Function
  11. breaks down carbs
  12. to break down lipids
  13. breaks down proteins
  14. would dump hormones into a capillary bed transporting hormones systemically. These can travel along ways. 2% (quantity) is produced by Islets of Langerhans.
    Endocrine Function
  15. secretes 4 main hormones; insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide
    Islets of Langerhans
  16. is secreting by the alpha cells of the Islets of Langerhans. It is secreted when blood glucose levels
    fall. It stimulates the breakdown of glycogen which is referred to as glycogenolysis which means we are breaking down a bunch large complex molecules and bunch of glucose. It also stimulates gluconeogenesis which is the synthesis of glucose from non-carbs
  17. is secreted by beta cells of the islets when 2 things are present in the blood; sugar/glucose molecules and protein/amino acids causing the beta cells of the pancreas to stimulate the release. It has to get to lots of places in the body through capillaries and stimulates muscle and adipose tissue to store a molecule called glycogen. Almost all tissues in the body require insulin; ones that don't they are red blood cells, liver, kidneys and brain
  18. is a complex molecule that is made of lots and lots of glucose. Excessive amounts are store or tucked in muscle cells and the liver to be used for later. It helps suppress the use of already stored fuels. It stimulates fat and protein synthesis. By reacting with amino acids it will cause the production of protein molecules
  19. is secreting by the alpha cells of the Islets of Langerhans. It is secreted when blood glucose levels
    fall, it stimulates the breakdown of glycogen which is referred to as glycogenolysis. It also stimulates gluconeogenesis which is the synthesis of glucose
    from non-carbs
  20. which means we are breaking down a bunch large complex molecules and bunch of glucose
  21. is secreted by the delta cells of the Islets of Langerhans. This slows down digestion giving the body a chance to absorb the proper nutrients. It doesn’t travel far, all digestive functions are nearby
  22. meaning hormone only travels short distance and inhibits the secretion of glucagon and insulin whose cells are close by
    Panacrine Function
  23. affects the absorption rate in the small intestine
    Pancreatic Polypeptide
  24. have both endocrine and exocrine function. Female exocrine would be ovulation and male would be sperm going down tube. Egg cells are surrounded by a wall of granulose cells that secrete estradiol during the first half of the menstrual cycle. Following ovulation we have a Corpus Luteum that secretes progesterone and estradiol. It also secretes inhibin. It inhibits or suppresses FSH. FSH stimulates egg development
  25. helps develop the female reproductive system, and the feminine physique. In the early years it helps with adolescent bone growth, regulates the menstrual cycle or sustains pregnancy. It will prepare mammary glands for lactation, if pregnant
  26. are made up of seminiferous tubules that produce sperm. In between the tubules are interstitial cells that will release into capillary beds. They produce testosterone and a small amount of estrogen.
    Male testes
  27. in early stages it will help stimulate develop of the male reproductive system, and gives the male his masculine physic. It is responsible for his sex drive, sustains sperm production and instinct
  28. are other cell outside the tubules that secrete inhibins that
    suppress FSH in men stabilizing the rate of sperm production.
    Sustentacular Cells
  29. a hormone produced by the heart that is stimulated when blood pressure is too high causing sodium excretion. This will reduce the amount of fluid in circulatory system lowering the blood pressure
    Atraial Natriuretic Peptide or ANP
  30. has ceratoid or keratinocytes. It produces the D3 hormone which can also be bought as a vitamin supplement but is not the usable for yet.
  31. This organ will convert vitamin D3 into calcidiol known as vitamin D2. It also produces another hormone called erythropoietin (15% of body production)
  32. stimulates the body to produce red blood cells
  33. organ that produces calcitriol which is vitamin D1, the active form. It produces the other 85% of the erythropoietin
  34. produce over 10 hormones
    Stomach and Small Intestines
  35. secretes two forms of estrogen and also progesterone and additional hormones that help maintain pregnancy
  36. is a hormone secreted by the stomach mucous that makes its way up to the hypothalamus telling you it is time to eat
  37. are mostly hydrophilic mixing with water since they are in the blood traveling in circulatory system
  38. their hormones are hydrophobic so they bind with hydrophilic transport protein like alvulans and globulins
    Steroidal and Thyroid
  39. aren’t bound and are broken down in a matter of minutes
    Free Hormones
  40. can last several weeks
    Bound Hormones
  41. or hormone clearance is the rate at which a hormone clears out of the system after it is produced
    Hormone Degradiation
  42. will happen when you have long term exposure to high concentration of hormone. This is possible thru food,
    growth hormones, or testosterone
    Down Regulation
  43. are identical to our own hormones but this can cause down regulation
    Bioidentical Hormones
  44. a shot the will affect bone and cartilage production
  45. can become competitors to other sites. Long term exposures to testosterone will cross after awhile and convert into estrogen.

    They have different ways of effecting. They can work synergistically. They can have a permissive effect is when one hormone increase target cells response to a second hormone.
    Excess Hormones
  46. is when one hormone opposes the action of another hormone
    Anatagonistic Effect
  47. are derived from arachidonic acid, and enzyme reaction will depend on this. These molecules are involved with inflammation in the body including fever
  48. block the release of arachidonic acid from the cell membranes like cortical and corticosterone
    SAID's or Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
  49. like aspirin and ibuprofen. They stop the enzymes that convert arachnoid acids
    NSAID's or Non-Steroidal Drugs
  50. does similar of the NSAID’s
    Antipyretic Drugs
  51. you would have chronic poly urea or too much urination and is referred to as diabetes insipiidus
    ADH Hypo Secretion
  52. many are caused by autoimmune diseases that attacked endocrine tissue. Hashimoto’s is an autoimmune disorder of the thyroid that can spread to other glands
    Endocrine Disorders
  53. is an autoimmune disease. In this condition auto-antibodies mimic TSH causing a hyper secretion of thyroid hormone
    Grave's Disease
  54. is a hyper secretion of growth hormone by the pituitary gland
  55. describes a pathological enlargement of the thyroid gland
  56. would be from lack of iodine which is why we have iodized salt
    Endemic Goiter
  57. causes bones to become soft and fragile or kidney stones to form by robbing calcium from the bone
  58. is excess coritsol secretion by the adrenal gland. There can be abnormal fat deposition between shoulders that are called the buffalo hump and will also get a moon face
    Cushing's Syndrome
  59. is created due do vertebra that has collapsed
    Dowager's Hump
  60. is the most common metabolic disease in the world. This is a condition of hypo secretion or inaction of insulin or cells that have become insulin resistant. This can lead to blindness, renal failure (kidney), and gangrene. They may have Polyurea, Polydipsia, or Polyphagia. Blood test will revel they are hyperglycemia (increased glucose in blood), this test has to be done after they have fasted 12 or so hours
    Diabetes Mellitus
  61. means they urinate a lot
  62. means they are continually thirst
  63. means excessive hunger
  64. is a blood test that tests for glucose in the urine
  65. is a test that predicts if there are ketones in the urine
  66. Normally all is returned to the blood and not urinated out. It needs a carrier to get it back into the blood. Once in the blood it needs to be turned into glycogen or tucked into different cells for production of ATP.
  67. Type I, Type II
    Diabetes Mellitus
  68. IDDM only 10% people fit in this category. It can also be known as or know as juvenile diabetes. It is the destruction of the beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans. This doesn’t show until they are 80-90%
    destroyed. Onset can be very rapid, of time triggered by a virus usually but can be caused by a vaccination. It is usually diagnosed around the age of 12.
    Type 1 or Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
  69. NIDDM contains the remaining 90%. They still contain their islet cells and can produce insulin but cells become insulin resistant. Pancreas needs raw materials to do its job such as chromium and vanadium, risk factor os heredity, age, and obesity. It usually appears after age 40
    Type 2 or Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
  70. actually produce hormone called resistance that makes cells become insulin resistant
    Fat Cells
  71. comes from rapid breakdown of fat from ketone bodies. Some of these bodies would be acetone and acetoacetic. The blood pH has to stay around 7.35, below 7.2 would produce diabetic coma
  72. would come before diabetic coma or shock. It is a deep gasping of breath, similar to the death wheeze
    Kussmaul Respiration
  73. will promote atherosclerosis or plaguing of blood vessels with fatty deposits. Renal arteries or kidneys will also plaque up causing trouble healing which promote gangrene. Blindness can also occur due to silver wire sign