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Continuity (Continuous development)
- Development is continuous and gradual
- ex) Learning to walk
- Development occurs in leaps, progressing though distinct changes
- ex) Puberty
- Development occurs from the "head to tail"
- Head size of infant is large compared to rest of the bodu
- Development occurs "near to far" in relation to thje torso
- Heart and internal organs function well before limbs and fine motor skills
- An age range during which certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally
- ex) Language
An optimal range for certain experiences that will maximize development
3 stages of prenatal development
- 1) germinal stage: first 2 weeks. zygote.
- 2) embyonic stage: 2 weeks to 2 months. embryo. formation of vital organs
- 3) fetal stage. 2 months to birth. fetus. bodily growth continues. grows in size
Age of viability
Age at which, if born, the fetus will survive
Substances that can cross the placental barrier which have a negative impact on prenatal development
Absorbing new info into existing cognitive structures
Modifying existing cognitive structures in response to experience and new info
Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development
- Sensorimotor: Birth -2 years. Sensory perceptions and motor skills. gradual appearance of symbolic thought
- mental symbols to represent objects
- object permanence ( things continue to exist when out of sight)
- Preoperational: 2 - 7. not good at conservation tasks yet.
- Centration- focusing on one feature of a problem and neglecting other aspects
- Irreversibility- cant reverse and action in mind
- egocentric. animism
Concrete operational: 7-11. decentration. master reversability.
- Formal Operational: 11+. abstraction
- abstract reasoning
emphasized the sociocultural influences on cognitive development