Tending to ihibit the growth and reproduction of microorganism
Formation of antibodies in the infected host which protects against future invasion of the same organism
An animal or plant that harbors and provides fir the need of another organism
Invasion of yhe body by pathogenic microorganism that caused disease
Is a living entity microscopic. (too small to be seen by naked eye)
The protective response of body tissues to irritation or injury
Means to institue and practice measures to curtail the spread of infectious disease
The study of organism that only be seen through a microscope
Refers to infections acquired in the hospital
Organisms that produce disease
Ad a means of sustaining an infectious organism as otential source of infection
Refers to the process that effectivelu kills or eliminates transmissible agents
Used when caring patient regardless of diagnosis or infection
Specialized structure form by bacteria which is resistant to heat and drying
Poisonous waste produced by some bacyeria
Smalleat microorg. Tgat cause infection only seen with electron microscope
Study of viruses
Study of microorg. , microbes, germs, and their activities. Only be seen through microscope
Who laid the foundation of microbiology from 1865-1882?
Study of bacteria
Study of virus
Study of fungia
Study of rickettsea
Study of immunity, resistance to diseaae
Study of protozoa
What are the microscopes discovered?
Light microscope and electron microscope
Study of microorganism, microbes, germs, and their activities. Can only be seen through microscope
1484-1553 wrote three books on the tranfer of infections from person to person
Who wrote about the transfer of infections from person to person?
Gerolamo Fracostorious 1484-1553
Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek
1632-1723 from Holland. First petson yo obsetve and deacribe microorganisms he called "animalcules" throufh the mucriscope
Who was the first person to look through a microscope and describe what they saw?
Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek from Holland
From Italy. Proposed and proved tgat heat and air excluded from tube containing animalcules and heated will kill them
English physician who developed a vaccine against small pox
Who developed a vaccine against small pox?
Edward Jenner an english physician
Who laid the foundation of microbiology as a new separate science?
Louis pasteur, Robert Koch, and Joseph Lister
Oliver Wendell Holmes
1843 physician poet published an article on contagiousness of puerperal sepsis, stated disease coyld be spread by hands of doctors and nurses
Who wrote an article on contagiousness of puerperal sepsis?
Oliver wendell holmes
a serious form of septicaemiacontracted by a woman during or shortly after childbirth, miscarriage or abortion. If untreated, it is life-threatening.
1843-1910 german physician. He developed Kochs postulates
1847 advisrd handwashing with a chlirinated lime solution
1861 published his view on the cause of puerperal fever
Who advised handwashing with a chlorinated lime solution?
Who published their views on the cause of puerperal fever?
1822-1895 father of modern microbio and bacteriology
Developed theory of fermentation
Conclude decomp caused by growth of microorganisms
Who is the father of modern microbiology and bacteriology?
Who developed the theory of fermentation
Who concluded that decomp. occurs by growth of microorg. ?
Louis Pastuer thr father of modern microbio anf bacteriology
When is the golden age of bacteria?
1880-1890 when many bacteria were discovered
1909- first observed rickettsea bodies
Who first observed rickettsea?
Dr. Ricketts 1909
How is rocky Mt. Spotted fever transmitted?
Wood ticks transmit what?
Rocky Mt. Spotted
1912- applied emerging knowledge about the relationship btween disease and infection using asepsis in surgery
Why practice Asepsis in surgery?
Reduce infections caused by surgery
Sir Alexander Fleming
1928- Discovered penicillin by accident which saved his life since he had pneumonia
Who and when discovered penicillin by accident?
Sir Alexander Fleming in 1928
What are microorganisms?
Only visible through microscope
Exist in air, water, soil and lon everything and everyone
Study of bacteria
Study of virus
Study of fungi
Study if rickettsea
Study of immunity, resistance to disease
Study of protozoa
Invasion of microorganisms in the body results in?
1 cause an infection
2 not cause an infection (normal flora)
Microorganism resides in the body without causing disease
List different types of organisms.
appear in three basic shapes: round (coccus), rod shape (bacillus) and curved rod
what are the differnt shapes that bacteria come in?
round (coccus), rod shaped (bacillus), and curved rod
round shape for bacteria
rod shaped bacteria
curved rod shape of bacteria
which is the largest group of microorganisms that can produce toins and cause disease?
they only gow in the presence of oxygen
it only gorw in the ABSENCE of O2
specialized structure formed by bacteria, remains dormant and germinates under favorable conditions. resistant to heat and disinfectants
bacteria can form them. - thick, slimy substances that envelopes cells when conditions are unfavorable
hair-like structures that enable the bacteria to move
poisonous waste produced by bacteria
microorganism that resembe bacteria but act more like viruses. smaller than bacteria, reproduce within the living cells of the host; transmitted to humans by intermeiate life forms such as fleas. which are referred to as parasites and can be treated with antibiotics
what microorganism resembles bacteria but act more like virus?
lives in a host
classified as bacteria - smaller than ricketssiae
what does chlamydia cause?
1. clamydia trachomatis, one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in the US
2. Trachomana a leading cause of blindness
what is one of hte most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in the US and what causes it?
chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydia (classified as a bacteria) causes it
smalled microorganism known to cause infectious diseases, can only be seen with an electron microscope.
they are filterable. need another organism to reporduce
cause diseases such as common cold, fever, blister, chickn pox, shingles, aids, hep.
what is the smallest microorganism know to cause infectious disease?
what do viruses cause?
it causes fever, common cold, blister, chicken pox, aids, hepiatitis
plant like organisms, only a few cause infectious diseases in humans
3 types of infections: superficial, intermediate, systemic
what are examples of fungi?
yeasts and molds
superficial mycotic infection
fungal infection on the skin
intermediate mycotic infection
fungal infection beneath the skin
systemic mycotic infection
fungal infections that occur to organs
single-celled animals;classified according to their ability to move; use of flagella, and sporozoa
where are protozoans found?
found in soil and most bodies of rain
what do protozoans cause?
cause amoebic dysentery and malaria
occur to patients that are immune compromised
infectious worms, not microscopic
what are examples of helminths?
roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes
animals with jointed legs including insects and ticks, mosquitoes can carry pathogens
what do microorganims need to thrive?
favorable enviornment; warmth, darkness, oxygen, water and nourishment
a special medium to promote growth of the organism
to determine which antibiotics will inhibit bacteria
uses a dye, a crytal violet/ blue violet use
retain the color of the crystal violet
lost the crystal violet take the color of the red counterstain
what microorganism is seen in gram positive?
what microorganism is seen in gram negative?
do not cause disease (harmless)
generally non pathogens that are constantly present on the skin
pathogens picket up during brief contact with contaminated reservoirs
person that has the organism but NOT the disease
what is the chain of infection
1. infectious agent (found everywhere) 2. reservoir 3. exit route from the reservir 4. mode of transmission 5. port of entry 6. susceptible host
what is 'mode of transmission' in the chain of infection?
how the microorganims that cause infections leave its reservoir (someone or some place) and land on its new prey
what are ways that microorganims survive?
1. form spores- which can resist heat and destructive chemicals that can survive without moisture 2. ability to become ntibiotic resistant
what are the methods of disease transmission?
1. contact: person to person 2. airborne 3 enviornment to person 4. droplet, vehicle 5. vector - vehicle into the body
infections acquired while in the hospital or other health agency at least 48 hours after admission or within 30 days of discharge is called?
refers to the condition that result when the microorganism cause injury to the host
refers to the presence of microroganisms but the host does not manifest signs or sympotoms of infection
what are the stages of infection?
1. incubation period 2. prodromal state 3. acute stage 4. convalescent stage 5. resolution
incubation period of infection
interval between entrance of pathogen into body and appearance of first symptom
prodromal stage of infectin
interval from onset of nonspecific signs and symptoms to more specific symptoms (example: body aches but cold not there yet)
acute stage of infection
interval when atient manifests signs and symptoms specific to type of infection (ex: full blown flu)
convalescent stage of infection
interval when acute symptoms of infection disappear
resolution stage of infection
when infection disappears
means to institue and practice measures to curtail the spread of infectious diseases
what are ways to control spread of infectious diseases?
1. confining pathogens to one area (private room) 2. using personal protective equipment (gloves, gowns, face protection ect) 3. dispose of contaminated linen, equip. and supplies
what are the two major categories established by CDC in 1996?
1. standard precautions 2. transmission based precautions
centers for disease control and prevention
used when caring for all patients, regardless of diagnosis or infection; a mjor category established by CDC in 1996
transmission based precautions
a major category established by CDC in 1996; measures used for controling spread of infectious agents from pts known to be or suspected of being infected with highly transmissible or epidermiologically imporan pathogens
what is another name for transmission based precaution?
what is te most improtant and basic preventive technique for preventing spread of infection?