Chapter 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance (3)

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Chapter 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance (3)
2011-02-05 23:02:45
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AP Bio
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  1. The main component of the genome in most bacteria is one __that is associated with a small amount of __.
    • double-stranded, circular DNA molecule
    • protein
  2. Difference between bacteria. and eukaryote?
    eukaryotic consists of one linear DNA molecule associated with a large amount of protein
  3. Within a bacterium, certain proteins cause the __ to coil and “supercoil,” densely packing it so that it fills only part of the cell. Unlike the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, this dense region of DNA in a bacterium, called the __, is not bounded by membrane.
    Eukaryotic chromosomes each contain a single linear __ that averages about 1.5 x 10­­8 nucleotide pairs.
    • chromosome
    • nucleoid
    • DNA double helix
  4. In the cell, eukaryotic DNA is precisely combined with a large amount of __.
    Together, this complex of DNA and protein, called __, fits into the __through an elaborate, multilevel system of DNA packing.
    • protein
    • chromatin
    • nucleus
  5. __undergoes striking changes in its degree of packing during the course of the __.
    · In __cells stained for light microscopy, the __ usually appears as a diffuse mass within the nucleus, suggesting that the __is highly extended. As a cell prepares for __, its __coils and folds up (condenses), eventually forming a characteristic number of short, thick __that are distinguishable from each other with the LM
    • chromatin
    • cell cycle
    • interphase
    • chromatin x2
    • mitosis
    • chromatin
    • metaphase chromosomes
  6. Though __ is generally much less condensed than the chromatin of mitotic chromosomes, it shows several of the same levels of higher-order packing.
    Some chromatin comprising a chromosome seems to be present as a 10 nm fiber, but much is compacted into a 30 nm fiber, which in some regions is further folded into __.
    • interphase chromatin
    • looped domains
  7. Although an __lacks an obvious __its __appear to be attached to the __, on the inside of the nuclear envelope, and perhaps also to fibers of the __· These attachments may help organize regions of chromatin where genes are active. The chromatin of each chromosome occupies a specific restricted area within the __nucleus and the chromatin fibers of different chromosomes do not become entangled.
    • interphase chromosome
    • scaffold
    • looped domains
    • nuclear lamina
    • nuclear matrix
    • interphase
  8. Even during interphase, the __ and __ of chromosomes exist in a highly condensed state similar to that seen in a metaphase chromosome.
    · This type of interphase chromatin, visible as irregular clumps with a light microscope, is called __, to distinguish it from the less compacted, more dispersed __(“true chromatin”)
    • centromeres
    • telomeres
    • heterochromatin
    • euchromatin
  9. Because of its compaction, __ is largely inaccessible to the machinery in the cell responsible for expressing (making use of) the genetic information coded in the DNA.
    heterochromatin DNA
  10. In contrast, the looser packing of __makes its DNA accessible to this machinery, so the genes present in euchromatin can be expressed.
  11. The chromosome is a dynamic structure that is condensed, loosened, modified, and remodeled as necessary for various cell processes, including __, __ and __.
    mitosis, meiosis and gene activity.
  12. It has become clear that __ are not simply inert spools around which the DNA is wrapped.
    · Instead, they can undergo chemical modifications that result in changes in chromatin organization.
  13. Terry Orr- Weaver showed that __of a specific __on a __ tail plays a crucial role in chromosome behavior during __of meiosis.
    • phosphorylation
    • amino acid
    • histone
    • prophase I
  14. __and other chemical modifications of __also have multiple effects on gene activity.
    • phosphorylation
    • histones