Chapter 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance (3)

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user DesLee26 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?

  1. The main component of the genome in most bacteria is one __that is associated with a small amount of __.
    • double-stranded, circular DNA molecule
    • protein
  2. Difference between bacteria. and eukaryote?
    eukaryotic consists of one linear DNA molecule associated with a large amount of protein
  3. Within a bacterium, certain proteins cause the __ to coil and “supercoil,” densely packing it so that it fills only part of the cell. Unlike the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, this dense region of DNA in a bacterium, called the __, is not bounded by membrane.
    Eukaryotic chromosomes each contain a single linear __ that averages about 1.5 x 10­­8 nucleotide pairs.
    • chromosome
    • nucleoid
    • DNA double helix
  4. In the cell, eukaryotic DNA is precisely combined with a large amount of __.
    Together, this complex of DNA and protein, called __, fits into the __through an elaborate, multilevel system of DNA packing.
    • protein
    • chromatin
    • nucleus
  5. __undergoes striking changes in its degree of packing during the course of the __.
    · In __cells stained for light microscopy, the __ usually appears as a diffuse mass within the nucleus, suggesting that the __is highly extended. As a cell prepares for __, its __coils and folds up (condenses), eventually forming a characteristic number of short, thick __that are distinguishable from each other with the LM
    • chromatin
    • cell cycle
    • interphase
    • chromatin x2
    • mitosis
    • chromatin
    • metaphase chromosomes
  6. Though __ is generally much less condensed than the chromatin of mitotic chromosomes, it shows several of the same levels of higher-order packing.
    Some chromatin comprising a chromosome seems to be present as a 10 nm fiber, but much is compacted into a 30 nm fiber, which in some regions is further folded into __.
    • interphase chromatin
    • looped domains
  7. Although an __lacks an obvious __its __appear to be attached to the __, on the inside of the nuclear envelope, and perhaps also to fibers of the __· These attachments may help organize regions of chromatin where genes are active. The chromatin of each chromosome occupies a specific restricted area within the __nucleus and the chromatin fibers of different chromosomes do not become entangled.
    • interphase chromosome
    • scaffold
    • looped domains
    • nuclear lamina
    • nuclear matrix
    • interphase
  8. Even during interphase, the __ and __ of chromosomes exist in a highly condensed state similar to that seen in a metaphase chromosome.
    · This type of interphase chromatin, visible as irregular clumps with a light microscope, is called __, to distinguish it from the less compacted, more dispersed __(“true chromatin”)
    • centromeres
    • telomeres
    • heterochromatin
    • euchromatin
  9. Because of its compaction, __ is largely inaccessible to the machinery in the cell responsible for expressing (making use of) the genetic information coded in the DNA.
    heterochromatin DNA
  10. In contrast, the looser packing of __makes its DNA accessible to this machinery, so the genes present in euchromatin can be expressed.
  11. The chromosome is a dynamic structure that is condensed, loosened, modified, and remodeled as necessary for various cell processes, including __, __ and __.
    mitosis, meiosis and gene activity.
  12. It has become clear that __ are not simply inert spools around which the DNA is wrapped.
    · Instead, they can undergo chemical modifications that result in changes in chromatin organization.
  13. Terry Orr- Weaver showed that __of a specific __on a __ tail plays a crucial role in chromosome behavior during __of meiosis.
    • phosphorylation
    • amino acid
    • histone
    • prophase I
  14. __and other chemical modifications of __also have multiple effects on gene activity.
    • phosphorylation
    • histones

Card Set Information

Chapter 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance (3)
2011-02-06 04:02:45
Chapter Section

AP Bio
Show Answers:

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview