diencephalon

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Author:
MrsWood
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6439
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diencephalon
Updated:
2010-02-09 19:53:56
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McVey Neuroanatomy
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Neuroanatomy
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  1. This part of the diencephalon is the largest part and consists of 2 ovoid masses connected in the midline
    dorsal thalamus
  2. The functions of the hypothalamus
    • Autonomic Functions-- Sympathetic/Parasympathetic (blood pressure, etc)
    • (Endocrine Control; regulation of food and water intake; emotions; circadian rhythms)
  3. The diencephalon is composed of 4 major parts. Name them.
    • the dorsal thalamus
    • hypothalamus
    • epithalamus
    • ventral thalamus [subthalamus]
  4. The dorsal thalamus has connections with
    • sensory & motor systems
    • also has connections with limbic system
  5. The hypothalamus has connections with
    forebrain, brainstem, spinal cord
  6. The ventral thalamus (subthalamus) has connections with
    basal ganglia - motor system
  7. The epithalamus has connections with
    the limbic system
  8. The junction bewtween the diencephalon and the midbrain is a line from the _____________________ to the edge of the ________________________.
    • posterior commisure
    • mamillary bodies
  9. The medial aspect of each thalamus borders the ___________
    3rd ventricle
  10. Output from the thalamus is mainly to the _____________ and it receives reciprocal input from the cortex
    cerebral cortex
  11. The two dorsal thalami are connected at the midline by
    the interthalamic adhesion
  12. The lateral aspect of the thalamus is covered by the _________
    The thalamus is divided into 4 parts by the ____________
    • External Medullary Lamina
    • Internal Medullary Lamina
  13. Within the external medullary lamina is the ___________
    thalamic reticular nucleus
  14. White Matter is
    Axons
  15. The Internal Medullary Lamina divides the Thalamus into 4 parts
    • Anterior
    • Lateral (dorsal and ventral tiers)
    • Medial
    • Intralaminar Regions
  16. Diencephalon --> Dorsal Thalamus --> Lateral --> Dorsal Tier --> _____________
    Pulvinar
  17. Diencephalon --> Dorsal Thalamus --> Lateral --> Dorsal Tier --> Pulvinar

    Where are the geniculate bodies(medial/lateral) located
    Posterior and inferior to the Pulvinar. They are the 2 bumps
  18. The Medial and Lateral Geniculate Bodies are sometimes referred to as the
    Metathalamus
  19. Diencephalon --> Dorsal Thalamus --> Anterior Region

    forms a prominent wedge caudal to the __________
    interventricular foramina
  20. Diencephalon --> Dorsal Thalamus --> Anterior Thalmic Nuclei receives input from _____________ and projects back to __________________ [parts of limbic system]
    limbic system structures (mamillary bodies & hippocampus)

    cingulate gyrus and hypothalamus
  21. Diencephalon --> Dorsal Thalamus --> Medial Thalmic Nuclei consists of __________ and the small ____________ region [adjacent to Internal medullary lamina]
    • dorsomedial nucleus
    • paralaminar
  22. Diencephalon --> Dorsal Thalamus --> Medial Thalamic --> Dorsomedial Nucleus has connections with the ___________ lobes and ______________
    temporal and amygdala (emotions and subjective states)
  23. Diencephalon --> Dorsal Thalamus --> Medial Thalamic --> Paralaminar Region is involved with _____
    eye movements
  24. Diencephalon --> Dorsal Thalamus --> Lateral Thalamic subdivided into ________ and _________

    Name the subdivisions of those subdivisions! :-)
    • Dorsal Tier
    • ----LD
    • ----LP
    • ----Pulvinar

    • Venteral Tier
    • ----VA
    • ----VL
    • ----VP
    • +++ VPL
    • +++VPM
    • +++VI
  25. Breakdown of Lateral Thalmic Nuclei

    Dorsal Tier----LD----LP----Pulvinar
    Venteral Tier----VA----VL----VP

    +++ VPL+++VPM+++VI

    The LD have connections with _____
    the cingulate gyrus
  26. Breakdown of Lateral Thalmic Nuclei

    Dorsal Tier----LD----LP----Pulvinar
    Venteral Tier----VA----VL----VP

    +++ VPL+++VPM+++VI

    The LP have connections with _____
    parietal lobe
  27. Breakdown of Lateral Thalmic Nuclei

    Dorsal Tier----LD----LP----Pulvinar
    Venteral Tier----VA----VL----VP

    +++ VPL+++VPM+++VI

    The Pulvinar has connections with _________
    frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes
  28. Breakdown of Lateral Thalmic Nuclei

    Dorsal Tier----LD----LP----Pulvinar
    Venteral Tier----VA----VL----VP

    +++ VPL+++VPM+++VI

    The Pulvinar is concerned with _________________
    • visual funcyions
    • and
    • eye movements
  29. Breakdown of Lateral Thalmic Nuclei

    Dorsal Tier----LD----LP----Pulvinar
    Venteral Tier----VA----VL----VP

    +++ VPL+++VPM+++VI

    The Pulvinar receives input from _____ and projects to _____
    • superior colliculus
    • and
    • visual association cortex
  30. Dorsal Thalamus --> Anterior, Medial, Lateral, Intralaminar

    The geniculate nuclei are in which group
    Lateral Thalamic
  31. Medial Geniculate receives _____ info and has connections with the _____ lobe.
    Lateral Geniculate receives ____ info and has connections with the ____ lobe.
    • auditory; temporal ---inferior colliculus to MEDIAL
    • visual; occipital -- CALCARINE SULCUS (primary visual cortex)
  32. Lateral Thalmic Nuclei : ventral tier consists of

    ____ & ____ = motor related nuclei, output to FRONTAL LOBE

    ______ = sensory nucleus
    VA & VL

    VP
  33. VA and VL both get input from ______

    VL gets input from ________
    • basal ganglia
    • cerebellum
  34. Lateral Thalmic -- ventral tier VP is subdivided into
    • VPL - sensory input from body
    • VPM - sensory input from face
    • VI -
  35. The VPL and VPM project to the ______ lobe
    parietal (primary somatosensory cortex) --post central gyrus
  36. The INTRALAMINAR NUCLEI (4th part of dorsal thalamus)
    are the 2 in the Y called ______ nuclei
    and the 1 in the stem of the Y called ____

    These nuclei project to _______, _______, and ____.
    • parafascicular
    • centromedian

    basal ganglia, other thalamic nuclei, and the cortex
  37. Thes nuclei are "other nuclei" found along the medial edge of the thalamus = ___________

    They are involved with regulation of limbic functions
    Midline Nuclei
  38. This "other nucleus" are within the EXTERNAL MEDULLARY LAMINA and are involved with modulating the responses of the neurons in the thalamus to incoming cortical input "gates the output"
    Thalamic Reticular Nucleus
  39. SPECIFIC OR NONSPECIFIC NUCELI produce rapidly conducted, localized response, in ipsilateral cortex
    SPECIFIC
  40. SPECIFIC OR NONSPECIFIC NUCELI produce widespread activity in the cortex of both hemispheres
    NONSPECIFIC
  41. Explain 2 types of Specific Nuclei and give examples
    • Specific
    • 1 - Relay --receive input from mainly ONE source, process and send to a localized region
    • examples: VPL, VOM,, MGB, LGB, VL, anterior nucleus

    • 2 - Association --receive input from different structures and send output to more than one area of cortex
    • example: pulvinar, DM, LD, LP
  42. What are some examples of non-specific nuclei (those thought to modulate excitability of large areas of cortex)
    • intralaminar nuclei
    • midline nuclei
    • parts of VA
  43. Diencephalon breakdown
    limbic system ____
    hypothalamus
  44. Diencephalon breakdown

    sensory, motor, limbic sys ______
    thalamus (dorsal thalamus)
  45. Diencephalon Breakdown
    motor ______
    ventral (subthalamus)
  46. Diencephalon Breakdown
    olfactory, visceral, somatic info (limbic) ______
    Epithalamus
  47. This part of diencephalon has numerous afferent and efferent connections
    hypothalamus
  48. The Epithalamus is characterized by ______ and _____
    • pineal gland - secretes hormones into blood steam, produces melatonin
    • habenular nuclei - olfactory, visceral, and somatic info integrated
  49. What is the main blood supply to the diencephalon
    • Circle of Willis with perforating branches from
    • ACA & Ant Communicating
    • PCA & Post Communicating
  50. Thalmic Nuclei are small so that lesions producing highly specific effects are ____
    not common!
  51. contralateral hemianesthesia
    • loss of sensations such as:
    • discriminative touch
    • 2 point discrimination
    • vibration
    • conscious proprioception
  52. Lesions -

    If damage includes VPL/VPM, what happens
    If damage includes VA/VL, what happens
    If damage to geniculate body, what happens
    • contralateral hemian-esthesia
    • movement disorders (ataxia, intention tremor)
    • contralateral homonymous hemian-opsia (visual probs)
  53. What is hyperalgesia --due to VPL/VPM lesion
    sometimes after a period of recover

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