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2011-02-06 00:05:16
Systems Analysis Design

Systems Analysis
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  1. Define: System
    A collection of interrelated components that function together to achieve some outcome
  2. Define: Systems Analysis
    The process of understanding and specifying in detail what the information system should accomplish
  3. Define: Systems Design
    The process of specifying in detail how the many components of the information system should be physically implemented
  4. Define: Systems Analyst
    A business professional who uses analysis and design techniques to solve business problems using information technology
  5. Information System
    A collection of interrelated components that collect, process, store, and provide as output the information needed to complete business tasks
  6. Subsystem
    A system that is part of a larger system
  7. Functional Decomposition
    Dividing a system into components based on subsystems that are further divided into smaller subsystems
  8. System Boundary
    The separation between a system and its environment that inputs and outputs must cross
  9. Automation Boundary
    The separation between the automated part of a system and the manual part of a system
  10. CRM
    • Customer Relationship Management System:
    • A system that supports marketing, sales, and service operations involving direct and indirect customer interaction
  11. SCM
    • Supply chain management system:
    • A system that seamlessly integrates product development, product aquisition, manufacturing, and inventory management
  12. AFM
    • Accounting and Financial Management System:
    • A system that records accounting information needed to produce financial statements and other reports used by investors and creditors
  13. HRM
    • Human Resourse Management System:
    • A system that supports employee-related tasks such as payroll, benefits, hiring and training.
  14. KMS
    • Knowledge Management System:
    • A system that supports the storage of and access to documents from all parts of the organisation
  15. CSS
    • Collaboration Support System:
    • A system that enables geographically distributed personnel to collaborate on projects and tasks
  16. ERP
    • Enterprise Resource Planning:
    • A process in which an organisation commits to using an integrated set of software packages for key information systems
  17. Database
    A centrally managed collection of data that is accessable to many users and systems at the same time
  18. SDLC
    • Systems Development Life Cycle:
    • The entire process of building, deploying, using and updating an information system
  19. Predictive Approach
    An SDLC approach that assumes the development project can be planned and organised in advance and that the new information system can be developed according to the plan
  20. Adaptive Approach
    An SDLC approach that is more flexible, assuming that the project cannot be planned out completely in advance but must be modified as it progresses
  21. 5 phases of the SDLC
    • Project Planning
    • Analysis
    • Design
    • Implementation
    • Support
  22. Waterfall model
    An SDLC approach that assumes the various phases of a project can be completed sequentially - one phases leaders (falls) into the next phase
  23. Project Planning Phase
    • To identify the scope of the new system 'define the problem'
    • ensure that the project is feasible
    • develop a project schedule
    • resource plan 'staff the project'
    • budget for the remainder of the project
    • launch the project
  24. Analysis Phase
    To understand in detail the business needs and the processing requirements of the new system

    • Gather information
    • Define system requirements
    • Build prototypes for discovery of requirements
    • Priorities requirements
    • Generate and evaluate alternatives
    • Review recommendations with management
  25. Design Phase
    To design the solution system based on the requirements defined and decisions made during analysis

    • Design and integrate the network
    • Design the application architecture
    • Design the user interfaces
    • Design the system interfaces
    • Design and integrate the database
    • Prototype for design details
    • Design and integrate the system controls
  26. Implementation Phase
    To build, test, and install a reliable information system with trained users ready to benefit as expected from use of the system

    • Construct software components
    • Verify and test
    • Convert data
    • Train users and document the system
    • Install the system
  27. Support Phase
    To keep the system running productively, both intially and during the many years of the system's lifetime

    • Maintain the system
    • Enhance the system
    • Support the users
  28. Spiral Model
    An adaptive SDLC approach that cycles over and over again through development activities until a project is complete
  29. Prototype
    A preliminary working model showing some aspect of a larger system
  30. Iteration
    System development processes in which work activities - analysis, design, implementation - are done once, then again, and yet again on different system components; they are repeated until the system is closer to what is ultimately needed
  31. Model
    A representation of an important aspect of the real world
  32. Tool
    Software support that helps create models or other components required in the project
  33. Technique
    A collection of guidelines that help an analyst complete a system development activity or task
  34. Structured Approach Modelling Tools
    • Context Diagram
    • Top level data flow diagram
    • Data dictionary listings for 5 data elements
    • Entity Relationship Diagram
  35. Object Orientated Approach Modelling Tools
    • Use Case Diagram
    • Detailed Use Case Description
    • Activity Diagram
    • Class Diagram
  36. IE
    • Information Engineering
    • A traditional system development methodology thought to be more rigourous and complete than the structure approach, because of its focus on strategic planning, data modeling, and automated tools
  37. Object Orientated Approach
    An approach to system development that views an information system as a collection of interacting objects that work together to accomplish tasks
  38. Unified Process
    An object orientated system development methodology (IBM's Rational Software).

    UML for system modeling

    Four life cycle phases - Inception, elaboration, construction and transition

    Example of SDLC that is in the middle of predictive vs adaptive scale

    Designed to reinforce 6 best practices for system development:

    • Develop iteratively
    • Define and manage system requirements
    • Use component architectures
    • Create visual models
    • Verify quality
    • Control changes
  39. Extreme Programming (XP)
    Lightweight system development approach.

    Highly adaptive approach to SDLC.

    User stories described. Iterative, incremental

    Continuous testing, continuous integration, heavy user involvment, programming done by teams.
  40. Methodology
    A collection of techniques, tools and models.
  41. CASE
    Computer Aided System Engineering

    Some generate program code based on created models

    Some help to automate the whole system development process
  42. System Coupling
    How dependant functions on other functions

    Should be low

    When you have to change something you do not have to change everything
  43. System Cohesion
    How defined and close are the relationships between functions

    Different from dependancy
  44. System in the structured approach
    • A set of procedures that interact with data to achieve some functionality
    • - Data passed between functions
    • - System as a collection of functions
    • - Functional decomposition
    • - Waterfall framework
    • - DFD's
    • - Sequence of intructions, if/else statements and loops
  45. System in the object orientated approach
    A set of objects that interact together through messages to achieve some objective

    Set of objects that exchange data via messages to achieve some functionality

    • - Processes vs System a a collection of objects
    • - Object decomposition
    • - Data passed between objects
    • - Iterative processes
    • - Class diagrams
    • - Message passing and events triggering