Exam 1 NUTR 504

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Exam 1 NUTR 504
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Info for exam 1 managerial skills in dietetics
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  1. What is a manager?
    A manager plans, organizes, leads and controls resources to achieve the objectives of an organization
  2. dietetic professionals
    • -dietitians
    • - dietetic technicians
  3. Commercial foodservice
    cater to customers who have choices of where to eat and are profit driven

    ex. supermarkets, food courts, resturants
  4. onsite food services
    typically serve people who have little chice in where thy eat; not considered profit driven

    ex. healthcare facilities, prisions, schools, some workplace cafeterias
  5. Positions in food service (6)
    1) assistant foodservice director

    2) purchasing manager

    3) production manager

    4) catering manager

    5) cafeteria manager

    6) foodservice supervisor
  6. Types of food service:
    conventional
    cooking form scratch, purchased in unprepared or partially prepared ex. UNH
  7. Types of food service:
    commissary
    • -purchased with little preparation
    • - large facilities used for pre-preparation; transported to remote locations for final prep.

    -ex. Albert's and Zeek's
  8. Types of food service:
    cook chill
    hot foods are pre-prepared then chilled and held at cool temperatures and rethermalized prior to serving

    ex. olive garden, etc.
  9. Types of food service:
    cook serve
    food brought up to serving temperature and kept at hot temperature

    ex. cafeterias
  10. Types of food service:
    self operation food service
    organization that recieves the service owns and operates it

    ex. UNH
  11. Types of food service:
    contract management
    provides food service to other organizaitons; contracts vary for services desired
  12. clinical nutrition manager
    • responsible for overall nutrition care of patients and supervisor of a team of slinical dietitians, diet techs, and diet clerks
    • - coordinates with the food service director
    • -does very little with patient care
  13. cheif clinical dietitian
    work in healthcahre setting; evaluate client needs, counsel clients, etc
  14. trayline supervisor
    check trays for quality control and insuring nutrition directives are being carried out
  15. public health nutritionist
    ususally has an MPH and supervise community nutirion agencies or programs
  16. community dietitians or nutritionists
    • works in community nutrition agencies or programs
    • some do not require RD
  17. Community agencies
    Wic, national dairy council, nutrition screening initiatives (NHANES)
  18. Community management:
    agency management
    can be private or governmental
  19. community managment:
    program management
    • maintain program within an umbrella agency such as adult day care, home healthcare
    • these might be nutirtion educaiton of client and workers, food safety, assessment and evaluation or services etc.
  20. community nutrition:
    site managers
    manages several sites that provide service
  21. skills needed:
    technical skills
    knowledge for a vairety of jobs
  22. skills needed:
    human skills
    personal attributes, knowlede of behavior, communication skills
  23. skills needed:
    conceptual skills
    • related for working with abstract ideas and concepts
    • how creative you are and can you think outside the box
  24. short term plans
    • geared toward attaining long term goals
    • can change with circumstances
    • days, weeks or months
  25. long-term
    projected outcomes or end goals
  26. strategic plan
    global plan for organizaiotn and made up of short term and long term goals for different parts of organization

    unh 10 year plan
  27. Roles of managers:
    interpersonal
    • figurehead- knows facts, figures, and budget and can explain them to employees
    • leader

    liaison- work between ceo and lower people or between hospital departments
  28. roles of managers:
    informational
    • monitor
    • disseminator
    • spokes person
  29. roles of managers:
    decisional
    • - entrepreneur
    • -disturbance handler- deals with problems
    • -resource allocator- make sure resources needed are available to employees
    • -negotiator
  30. What is an organization?
    • -A systematic arrangement of people to accomplish a specific purpose
    • - what you manage ex. school, restaurant, hospital
  31. WHat do employees need to know?
    what they are responsible and who they should report to
  32. Line
    - authority provides the right to direct others to conform to the decisions, policies and procedures of the organization (means you have the authority)
  33. Staff
    • porvides advice and service
    • usually they are specialist in their fields (don't have authority)
  34. operatives/ Frontline workers
    the workers
  35. TYpes of managers:
    frontline managers
    responsible for produciton, oversee workers
  36. Types of managers:
    top level managers
    direct large segments of the organization (ex. vice president)
  37. Types of managers:
    middle managers
    above the frontline but under the top level managers
  38. Number of middle managers is dependent on:
    - in a large organizaiton need more or less
    • - size of the organization - more
    • - discrete work units - more
    • - geographic divisions - more
    • - number of people to be supervised - more
  39. Chain of command:
    staff managers
    Managers who oversee supportive departments or groups ex. legal departments
  40. Skills managers need:
    technical
  41. Acquired through experience or education
    Needed to produce a product of some sort --> care plan or food that is served
  42. Skills needed by managers:
    human relations
    • - Personal attributes
    • - Knowledge - of peoples issues
    • - Learned behavior

    • -This requires
    • - Knowing the rules and regulations
    • - Ability to communicate with subordinate as well as with authority figures
  43. Skills needed by managers:
    conceptual
    - thinking outside of hte box


    Allows one to see beyond the reality of the immediate situation

    Look at the global picture and visualize what is possible

    Deals with abstract stuff
  44. Lack of communication can result in (2)
    • decreased productivity
    • unsatisfactory work environment
  45. successfull communicaiton involves effective transmission of (8)
    • - Facts
    • - Feelings - frustration, stress
    • - Values
    • - Ideas
    • - Beliefs
    • - Priorities
    • - Plans
    • - Perceptions
  46. Poor communicaiton results in
    (7)
    • Missinterpretations
    • misdirection
    • missed opportunities
    • contradictions
    • duplication of efforts
    • voids
    • hurt feelings
  47. Lines of communication:
    vertical
    people above and below you
  48. Lines of communication:
    horizontal
    between 2 departments
  49. Lines of communication:
    intradepartmental
    in department
  50. Lines of communication:
    interdepartmental
    between 2 departments
  51. Lines of communication:
    intraorganizational
    in organization
  52. Lines of communication:
    interorganizational
    between organizations
  53. Lines of communication:
    intraprofessional
    within profession
  54. Lines of communication:
    interprofessional
    between professions (ex. ada and diabetes association)
  55. When should information be withheld?
    proprietary information
    information which is restricted to certain individuals, confidential in nature
  56. When should information be withheld?
    HIPPA
    - keeping patient information confidential --> only see confidential stuff to do your own job
  57. Barriers to communication (7):
    • - We hear what we expect to hear
    • - We all have different perceptions
    • - We evaluate the source
    • - Our emotional state conditions what we hear
    • - We ignore information that conflicts with what we know
    • - Words have different meanings to different people especially regional language and cultural variations
    • - Words have symbolic meaning
  58. overcomming barries to communication (7)
    • - Give feedback
    • - Provide fact to face communication
    • - Be sensitive to the world of the receiver
    • - Be aware of symbolic meaning
    • - Carefully time messages
    • - Reinforce words with action --> don't make empty promises
    • - Use direct simple language
  59. What employees expect of their managers (5)
    • - To be qualified
    • - Know skills needed for each job
    • - Fairness and consistency
    • - To communicate well
    • - To know how to motivate
    • - To be qualified
    • - Know skills needed for each job
    • - Fairness and consistency
    • - To communicate well
    • - To know how to motivate
  60. Keys to supervisory success (8)
    • - Be yourself
    • - Be flexible
    • - Learn to delegate
    • - Be innovative
    • - Set priorities
    • - Coach, support, provide feedback
    • - Keep communication lines open
    • - Keep your word
  61. Classical approach:
    Bureaucracy theory
    • - Characterized by extensive rules and procedures
    • - Rigid hierarchical structure - old style boss --> has authority doesn’t know workers
    • - Impersonal relationships
    • - Centralized authority
  62. Classical approach:
    Administrative theory
    • - Division of work is the foundation of the organization
    • - If work is divided, it must be coordinated
    • - Orders flow from superior to subordinate
    • - To avoid confusion in inefficiency, the principle of unity of command ( at every level there is a boss) exists
    • - There is a limit to the number of persons an individual can manage
  63. Span of control
    • 4-5 people at higher levels
    • 8-12 at lower levels
  64. Classical apporach:
    Scientific managment theory (aka classical theory)
    • - Uses good judgement to arrive at management principles
    • - Very different from the other two theories
    • - Work is arranged and jobs are designed so as to maximize efficiency by economically motivating people (ex. being paid per part made)
  65. 2 factors necessayr to motivate workers
    • - Maintenance Factors
    • -economic security - low base pay then paid per part
    • - social working conditions
    • status - career ladder

    • - Motivation Factors
    • - Challenging work - job rotation
    • - Feelings of personal accomplishment
    • - Recognition of achievement - employee of the month
    • - Increased responsibility
    • - Senses of importance
    • - Access to information
    • - Involvement in decision making - some not a lot (ex. box for people to put ideas
  66. maslow
    • - Man's needs exist in a hierarchical structure
    • - 5 basic needs -
    • - Physical, safety (OSHA) , social, esteem, self-realization (creative, innovative)
    • - one need must be met before the nest need can be met
  67. Systems managment (employees get more say)
    • - Organization is composed of many
    • subsystems of management
    • - Most important concept of modern management
    • - Deals with changes and inter-relationships between departments
    • - Sees the organization as more
    • than an economic unit
  68. sources of power
    • Reward power- raises and bonuses
    • Coercive power - taking stuff away
    • Legitimate power - part of your work duties
    • Expert power - knowledge in a particular area
    • Referent power - charismatic power
  69. influence
    getting people to do something
  70. power
    telling/making people do what you want
  71. Managments styles:
    autocratic
    • not great
    • boss makes all decisions
  72. management styles:
    consultative
    • not great
    • consult with people but boss makes final decision
  73. management style:
    participative
    • many ocnsider ideal
    • open ended to all employees
  74. manamgment styles:
    democratic
    • not great
    • every one gets a vote and majority wins
  75. management styles:
    laissez faire
    let it go any one is the boss
  76. McGregor
    Theory x
  77. William ouchi
    theory z
  78. Norma meier
    • participative management theory
    • 1st woman to create a management theory
  79. Peter drucker and later Goerorge Odiorne
    managment by objective (most used today)
  80. Decision making
    A logical stepwise approach that is used to make a choice between options, to solve a problem or to resolve a dilemma

    Good decision making requires the use of critical thinking skills which involves evaluating a series of criteria on which to base a judgment or decision
  81. Contingency planning
    • Making a decision ahead of time so that it can be implemented in a timely manner
    • Example: Disaster Planning
  82. Steps in decision making process (6)
    Identify the problem

    Define objectives/criteria for solving the problem

    Assign weight to these factors

    Develop and analyze potential solutions/ alternatives --> very important to have alternatives

    • Make the decision
    • Evaluate the outcome
  83. Types of decisions:
    Programmed used for structured problems
    Problems are routine and predictable

    Relate to day to day decisions

    Information to solve the problem is readily available: precedent, rules and regulations, policies and procedures, labor contracts etc

    Is a learned behavior, the more experienced the person is, the easier it is and there is a greater chance that the decision will be a good one

    Examples of structured decisions: purchasing, scheduling, dealing with equipment malfunction
  84. Types of decisions:
    Non-programmed for unstructured problems
    Unstructured problems are new and unusual, and often unpredictable

    Less easily identified and goals less clear

    • Information to make the decision is often incomplete and/or ambiguous
    • These decisions take longer to make and each step of the decision making process must be used

    These types of problems occur more often in new institutions and those with no institutional memory

    A nonprogrammed decision calls for the formulation of rules or policies and procedures
  85. Decision making styles:
    problem avoider
    Tries to evade reality

    • Does not recognize a problem or chooses to avoid it
    • May be a procrastinator, puts it off
    • Remember deciding not to make a decision is making a decision, often a poor one
    • Routine avoidance can have employees question managerial effectiveness
  86. Decision making styles:
    problem solver - not proactive don't look ahead for problems
    Reacts to problems

    Slogan---if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it

    Deals with problems as they occur

    Primarily deals with urgent issues
  87. Decision making styles:
    problem seeker- need policy or procedure w/ some leeway
    Proactive individual

    • Can identify slight discrepancies
    • Thrives on making and implementing decisions

    • Anticipates problems and is ready with solutions---contigency planning
    • Subordinates however are constantly adjusting to change…can cause stress if changes are major
  88. Directive decision makers
    • Efficient and logical---rapid decisions
    • Requires little information to make a decision

    Simple solutions

    • Looks at few alternatives
    • Low tolerance for ambiguity, need hard facts
    • Effective for programmed decisions
  89. conceptual decision makers
    Open to new ideas--- creative, think outside the box

    Looks at many alternatives

    High tolerance for ambiguity

    Relies on instinct (gut feeling)

    Effective for nonprogrammed decisions
  90. Analytical decision makers
    Enjoys solving problems, esp. unusual ones

    Likes to seek alternatives and information

    Can tolerate ambiguity

    Applies a rational approach, not intuitive

    Solutions are often complex
  91. behavioral decision maker
    Uses intuition, feelings and perceptions

    Dislikes ambiguity though

    • Worries about others
    • Relies heavily on meetings
  92. Group decision making:
    Accomodation
    group accepts the position of the dominant member(s) of the group for various reasons

    b/c people are afraid of bc person is charismatic
  93. Group decision making:
    DeFacto Decisions
    occur passively, may or may not be unanimous and may or may not be a good one….common characteristic is lack of dissent
  94. Group decision making:
    Reasons
    lack or urgency, time constraints, boredom, uncertainty about who is responsible
  95. Group decision making:
    Group thinking
    cohesiveness of the group is more important than the decision; avoidance of dissent and disagreement is upmost

    Members of the group are loyal to each other and so not want to jeopardize this unity by expressing opposing opinions
  96. Ways to imptove group decision making:
    Brainstorming
    contributing as many ideas as possible without analysis or criticism
  97. Ways to improve group decision making:
    Nominal group technique 4 step process
    • 1. Each member contributes ideas independently
    • 2. Each takes a turn to present an idea to the group
    • 3. Group discussion about the ideas prresented
    • 4. Independent ranking of ideas generated with the ideas getting the highest rankings considered
  98. Ways to improve group decision making:
    Delphi technique
    similar to the Nominal Group but individuals never meet as a group

    Questionnaire is sent to generate ideas

    Results are compiled and redistributed to members who comment in writing

    Pros: Saves time(sometimes), minimizes personal influences

    Cons: May limit the generation of new ideas that verbal discussion promotes, may take time to go back and forth with information
  99. entrepreneurs in private practice
    • may be individual or group practice
    • May offer contract services including patient counseling, screenings in workplaces, teaching food preparation classes to groups, writing articles for a newsletter.
    • When duties increase, they may hire associates and manage them, plan projects etc.
  100. Business owner
    start company providing a particular product such as computer software nutrition education materials, internet website, commercial food products
  101. industry
    pharmaceuticals, food manufacturing, and food distributing
  102. educators
    director of DPD and internship project
  103. hospital administration
    some coordinate activities of several allied health departments like patient services which can include dietary, lab, and pharmaceutical
  104. sales and marketing
    such as regional managers
  105. nutriton policy
    national and international UNICEF, Red Cross, CDC, WHO, World Bank, National Institutes of Health
  106. strategic plan
    global plan for organization and made up of short term and long term goals for different parts of organization
  107. What are the components of a message?
    • Content of the message
    • Type of wording (vocabulary)
    • Nonverbal cues
    • Delivery style
    • Complexity of the message - parts of the message
    • Focus of the message (I, you or neutral)
  108. Verbal characteristics
    • accent, speed, tone, pitch, rhythm
    • sometimes these can disstort a message
  109. non-verbal characteristics
    artifacts, proxemics (like body language), body language, physical shcacteristics
  110. Diet manual
    contains all information pertinent to maintaining consistent operation of dietetic functions
  111. Arena
    • free and open exchange of information
    • it incrases in size as the level of trust increases
  112. Blind spot
    Person communicates information that he/she doesn’t realize that he/she is communicating
  113. Facade or hidden areas
    Things person keeps for others
  114. unknown things
    things unknown by everyone
  115. goals
    To improve communication, the arena must be enlarged by reducing the blind spot or hidden area
  116. light facade/hidden area
    person that asks alot of questions but do not volunteer any information
  117. large blindspot
    person who gives alot of feedback but will not accept it
  118. large unknown area
    • everyone is in the dark
    • no one knowns anythign about themselves or others
  119. Conditions that may modify span of control (7)
    • žType of workž
    • Degree of training of the worker
    • žOrganizational stability
    • žFlow of work
    • žGeographical location
    • žSupervisor’s qualifications
    • žAvailability of staff specialists
  120. Human relations movement
    • Real power is in interpersonal relationships - bosses should get to know there employees
    • Highlights employee responsibility

    De-emphasizes assembly line work

    • Provides concern for employee welfare - ex. health insurance
    • Emphasizes training and participation
  121. Theory X
    • McGregor
    • worker is naturally lazy and needs constant supervision
  122. Theory x assumptions
    Work is inherently distasteful to most people

    People lack ambition and need to be directed

    • People lack creativity to solve problems
    • Employees need coercion to meet objectives
  123. Theory y assuptions
    • Work is as natural as play
    • Self-control (self direction) is indispensable in achieving goals
    • Everyone has some creativity

    People can be self-directed if properly motivated
  124. Theory z
    • Ouchi
    • emphasizes on long range planning
    • consensus decision making
    • stong employer-worker loyalty (popular in japan)
  125. Management by objective (MBO)
    • Drucker and Odiorne
    • important tool to improve employee morale and productivity involving them in decisions that enhance their job effectiveness
    • Individual acountability important
    • - self control
    • - self direction
  126. Criteria for decision making
    State factors that are important to achieving the best possible outcome

    Criteria can come from the manager or an outside source like from an expert, government regulations

    All relevant factors must be spelled out and irrelevant ones eliminated
  127. Ambiguity
    not knowing everything
  128. Risk in decision making:
    Certainty
    few decision have absolute certanty that wthey will be correct
  129. RIsk in decision making:
    Risk
    unknown or uncertain factors or outcomes
  130. Risk in decision making:
    calculated risk
    has higher probability because there is data behind it

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