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What does fat help regulate in the body?
starting material for hormones
What do vitamins regulate in the body?
- energy production regulation
- blood clotting
- calcium balance
What do minerals regulate in the body?
- control fluid balance
- regulate muscle contraction
List some "facts" about carbs:
- primary fuel for energy (produced quickly)
- energy source for brain and CNS
- facilitates fat break down
- ***plant origin
What is the main addition to the food pyramid in 2005 that it didn't have in the past?
30-90 minutes of exercise
What complex carb comes from animals and what does it do?
- used by liver to regulate blood sugar
- blood glucose: insulin unlocks cells and allows glucose in to fuel them
List some "facts" about dietary fiber:
- comes from plants and is indigestible
- takes up space, so makes you full
- slow down digestion and cleans intestines
- 25-30 g./day
- doesn't raise blood glucose levels because it can't be broken down
What does a diet low in fiber cause?
- colon cancer
What does a diet high in fiber cause?
- bowel blockage
What is the difference between nutritive sweetners and alternative sweetners?
- nutritive sweetners: digestible and provide energy
- alternative sweetners: no energy
What are CHO stored as?
- excess is converted to fat
How many different amino acids are there (essential and non-essential)?
- 20 AA
- 9 essential
- 11 non-essential (they are produced by the body)
How do you name omega 3, 6, and 9?
the location of double bond closest to omega or methyl end of fatty acid
Where does cholesterol come from?
- ***only animal
- the liver does make it though, not an esential part of our diet
What are the 7 types of vegetarians and the characteristics of each?
- semi: excludes red meat and pork
- pesco: excludes red meat, pork, and poultry
- lacto-ovo: excludes all animal flesh
- lacto: excludes animal flesh and eggs
- ovo: excludes animal flesh and milk
- vega: excludes all animal product
- fruititarian: excludes all food except raw fruit, veggies, nuts, and green foliage
What are some benefits and risks of being vegetarian?
Benefits: less fat & cholesterol, more fresh fruit & veggies, less likely to develop heart disease, colon CA, HBP, and breast CA
Risk: low iron, zinc, calcium, protein, D, and B12
What are 2 water soluble vitamins and their characteristics?
- B, C
- not stored in body, flushed out in urine
What are fat soluble vitamins and their characteristics?
- A, D, E, K
- stored in liver and fat tissue--> need fat intake for absorption
What vitamin do infants have a 9 month supply of?
What does vitamin K help with
- formation of blood clots and bone metabolism
- very toxic
Are minerals absorbed better from plant or animal sources?
What is mineral-mineral interaction?
excess of one mineral can retard the absorption of another
What is vitamin-mineral interaction?
- Vitamin D improves Ca absorption
- Vitamin C improves Fe absorption
What is the most abundant mineral and characteristics of it?
- most abundant, but 75% americans don't get enough
- helps with skeletal muscle contraction, blood clotting, transmission of nerve impulses, activation of certain enzymes, syntheses of vitamin D
What is magnesium essential for?
What are 4 trace minerals
Facts about water:
- 60-70% of our body weight
- can only live 4 days with no water (3 weeks w/out food)
- get water from food, metabolism, and liquids
What are water recommendations?
- men: 13 cups
- women: 9 cups
- before exercise: 400-600 ml
- every 15 minutes of continous exercise: 250 mL
If you've exercised for OVER an hour, what the liquid consumption recommendation?
sports drink and water... less than an hour is only water
What is fatal amount of water loss?
8-12% body weight
What is hyponatremia?
low blood sodium levels which cause the brain cells to swell and ultimately seizure or coma
What is the purpose of parathyroid hormone?
combines with calcitonin to regulate calcium levels
What are keys to a healthy diet?
Recommendations for dairy, meat, veggies, fruits, and grains?
- dairy: 2-3 servings (3 cups)
- meat: 2 servings (5.5 oz)
- veggies: 3-5 servings (2.5 cups)
- fruiT: 2-4 servings (2 cups)
- grains: 6-11 servings (6oz)
What are phtochemicals and some examples?
- products in food that are not vitamins or minerals
- flavenoids (apples)
- lycopenes (tomatoes)
- sulfur (broccoli, brussel sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage)
- isoflavones (soy)
What are some important additions to a pregnant woman's diet?
- folic acid (600 mg)
- increase protein (60 grams/day)
- increase calcium (1200 mg)
- double iron (30 mg)
- 300 more calories a day (25-35 lbs overall)
Important additions when breast-feedings?
- 500 more calories/day
- increase protein 65g/day
- decrease iron until menstruation begins
- high in fat and moderate in carbs
- high protein
- immune protection: breast milk
What do growing boys need more of?
WHat BMI indesxes define overweight and obese?
- overweight: >25
- obese: >30
What will soon take over smoking as #1 health hazard
- 2/3s of americans are overweight or obese
What is waist circumference for obesity?
What are the 3 main components of Female Athlete Triad?
- disordered eating
What body fat is norm for Female Athlete Triad?
What is the purpose of Estrogen?
- increases intestinal Ca absorption
- inhibits bone reabsorption
- decreases bone turnover
WHat are common signs of anorexia?
- severe muscle atrophy
- dull hair
- brittle nails
- electorlyte imbalance
- cold intolerant
- 15% below expected body weight
What are characteristics of binge eating?
- overeating at least two times per week
- most common eating disorder
What does bulimia cause?
- electrolyte imbalance
- inflammation of salivary glands and esophagus
- dysfunctional bowel
- mild neuropathies
What is the main difference in a heart healthy diet?
total fat intake around 20% instead of 20-35%
What does the DASH diet try to help do?