Nonmodifiable - ethnicity, age, genetics, gender, personal history
What is the leading cause of blindness and kidney failure?
Type 2 diabetes
What are risk factors for diabetes?
obesity, lack of exercise, high blood pressure, ethnicity
What is primary prevention of diabetes?
What is secondary prevention of diabetes?
Participate in screenings
What is the fasting plasma glucose and glucose tolerance test levels for prediabetic and diabetic?
Prediabetic - FPG - over 100, OGTT - over 140
Diabetic - FPG - over 126, OGTT - over 200
What are nursing responsibilities to do with immunizations?
What is screening
Secondary disease prevention
Interventions focused on populations at risk that will identify the high probability of diseases at early stages when their courses can be altered in important ways
A disease is screenable and a community problem if...
It affects length and quality of life
it affects large numbers of people
treating it is costly
A disease is screenable and it can be screened if...
diagnostic criteria are well documented
screening instruments are reliable and valid
community resources are available for screening and follow up as needed
A disease is screenable and it should be screened if...
adequate information is available on the natural history of the disease
post screening referrals are available
there will be compliabce with prescribed treatment regimen
the treatment is safe
What are the influences of Gordon's functional health patterns?
What is a risk hazard assessment?
can be used to determine longevity or a prognostic category involving life expectancy
What are the parts of an actual ND, a risk for ND and a health promotion ND?
Actual: problem statement, etiology (r/t), evidence (aeb)
Risk for: problem statement, etiology (r/t)
health promotion: 3 part
What is an etiology statement?
the most probable reason for the problem statement
NOT medical diagnosis
drives type of nursing interventions
use for actual nursing problems
What is the evidence statement
documented from assessment
supports problem statement
What do goal statements need to have?
specific and measurable
have a time frame
What are the steps in implementing the plan?
carry out plan
modify as needed
document care given
What are the 3 ways of gathering community data?
observation data - windshield survey
interview data - verbal statements
measurement data - instruments to quantify data
What are ecological variables?
physiological (age, sex, diseases)
social (family makeup and cohesiveness)
psychological (coping, interpersonal skills and stresses)
cultural (attitudes, values and beliefs)
economic (income, job history and skills)
political (government and legal influence)
spiritual (church attendance and values)
What is the transtheoretical model?
It is a model of intentional change that focuses on the decision making of the individual. It involves emotions, cognitions and behavior
What are the stages of the TTM?
What is the decisional balance?
relative weighing of the pros and cons of changing a behavior
What is the situational temptation measure?
it reflects the intensity of urges to engage in a specific behavior when in the midst of difficult situations
What is the self efficacy construct?
it represents the situation specific confidence that people have that they can cope with high risk situations without relapsing to their unhealthy or high risk habit
What are the experiential processes of change?
conciousness raising (increasing awareness)
dramatic relief (emotional arousal)
environmental reevaluation (social reappraisal)
social liberation (environmental opportunities)
self reevaluation(self reappraisal)
What are the behavioral processes of change?
What is health education?
any combination of planned learning experiences based on sound theories that provide individuals, groups and communities the opportunities to acquire the information nad the skills needed to make quality health decisions
What are the HP objectives in school, work and community
school - middle through university age
work - comprehensive health promotion programs
community - culturally sensitive health departments, increase health promotion activities for older adults
What are the goals for health education in health promotion?
optimal states of health (increased length and quality of life)
prevention or early detection of disease or disability
What is the health belief model?
attempts to explain and predict health behaviors by focusing on the attitudes and beliefs of individuals.
What is the behavioral learning theory?
A person's behavior changes in response to the immediate consequences, pleasurable consequences strengthen behavior and unpleasant consequences weaken the behavior
What is social cognitive theory?
health behaviors are learned in families. We learn by modeling our parents