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What is health?
A complete sense of physical, mental, social and spiritual wellbeing
What is wellness?
A subjective feeling. You can feel well but still have a disease.
What is disease?
Pathophysiology (cancer, heart disease, etc.)
What is illness?
A subjective feeling of not being well
What is the clinical model of health?
- used in traditional medicine
- If there are no signs/symptoms then nothing must be wrong
What is the role performance model of health?
- it asks if you are able to perform your role
- If unable to perform role then there is something wrong
What is the adaptive model of health?
- How well can you adapt to change (emotional)
- When you can't adapt you are considered not well
What is the eudiamonistic model of health?
- When you have exuberance, then you are well.
- Good stress does not make you ill.
What is the importance of the Healthy people objectives?
- Healthy people is a government program that sets goals for the nation in regards to health.
- two main goals are: increase quality and years of life and to eliminate health care disparities
How does Healthy People 2010 work?
- it tracks important health statistics
- involvement and communication
- topics and objectives
- leading health indicators
What is primary prevention?
- preventing something from happening
- Examples: vaccines, health education
What is secondary prevention?
- When someone already has a disease but it is being prevented from worsening
- Eg. health screenings for early diagnosis and treatment
What is tertiary prevention?
Rehabilitation of a person who has a disease
What is risk and how is it determined?
Is is the likelyhood that a person is going to develop a disease and it is determined through research
What are the two types of risk?
- Absolute risk - simple accounting of number with disease/number in population. THis does not take into account risk factors
- Relative risk - this takes into account factors like age, race, smoker etc.
What are the roles of nurses in health promotion
- care manager
- deliverer of services
What care manager roles apply to HP objectives?
- increase proportion of adults who get screenings
- reduce number of adults with HBP
- reduce number of antibiotics prescribed for common cold
- increase proportion of adults who get flu vaccine
What health educator roles apply to HP objectives?
- increase # of students that get health education to reduce common problems
- increase # of adults who are aware of signs of stroke
What advocate roles are related to HP?
- reduce # of families who have difficulty getting health care
- increase proportion of adults with diabetes who are diagnosed.
What is the leading cause of death in adults?
What should cholesterol and triglyceride levels be?
- total cholesterol under 200
- HDL - over 60
- LDL - under 100
- Triglyceride - under 150
WHat are modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease?
- Modifiable - inactivity, smoking, stress, obesity
- nonmodifiable - age, ethnicity, genetics, personal history
What is metabolic syndrome?
excess abdominal fat, increased b/p, HDL under 40, high triglycerides
What is the scale of hypertension b/p?
- normal - under 120/80
- prehypertension - 120-139/80-89
- hypertensice - over 140/90
What is the difference between essential and secondary hypertension?
- essential - associated with cardiovascular disease
- secondary - has another cause (pregnancy, renal failure, diabetes)
What is primary prevention for hypertension?
- Dash diet (high in veg, low in carbs/meat)
- exercise (150min/week in 10min increments)
- stress management
- weight management
What is secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease?
- participate in screenings
- recognize early warning signs
What is the leading cause of death in people under 85?
What is a direct extension of a tumor?
What are modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for cancer?
- Modifiable - smoking, diet, environmental carcinogens
- Nonmodifiable - ethnicity, age, genetics, gender, personal history
What is the leading cause of blindness and kidney failure?
Type 2 diabetes
What are risk factors for diabetes?
obesity, lack of exercise, high blood pressure, ethnicity
What is primary prevention of diabetes?
- Increase awareness
- maintain weight
What is secondary prevention of diabetes?
Participate in screenings
What is the fasting plasma glucose and glucose tolerance test levels for prediabetic and diabetic?
- Prediabetic - FPG - over 100, OGTT - over 140
- Diabetic - FPG - over 126, OGTT - over 200
What are nursing responsibilities to do with immunizations?
- check contraindications
- record keeping
What is screening
- Secondary disease prevention
- Interventions focused on populations at risk that will identify the high probability of diseases at early stages when their courses can be altered in important ways
A disease is screenable and a community problem if...
- It affects length and quality of life
- it affects large numbers of people
- treating it is costly
A disease is screenable and it can be screened if...
- diagnostic criteria are well documented
- screening instruments are reliable and valid
- community resources are available for screening and follow up as needed
A disease is screenable and it should be screened if...
- adequate information is available on the natural history of the disease
- post screening referrals are available
- there will be compliabce with prescribed treatment regimen
- the treatment is safe
What are the influences of Gordon's functional health patterns?
- disease state
What is a risk hazard assessment?
can be used to determine longevity or a prognostic category involving life expectancy
What are the parts of an actual ND, a risk for ND and a health promotion ND?
- Actual: problem statement, etiology (r/t), evidence (aeb)
- Risk for: problem statement, etiology (r/t)
- health promotion: 3 part
What is an etiology statement?
- the most probable reason for the problem statement
- NOT medical diagnosis
- drives type of nursing interventions
- use for actual nursing problems
What is the evidence statement
- documented from assessment
- supports problem statement
What do goal statements need to have?
- client centered
- specific and measurable
- have a time frame
- address diagnosis
What are the steps in implementing the plan?
- carry out plan
- modify as needed
- document care given
What are the 3 ways of gathering community data?
- observation data - windshield survey
- interview data - verbal statements
- measurement data - instruments to quantify data
What are ecological variables?
- spatial (setting)
- physiological (age, sex, diseases)
- social (family makeup and cohesiveness)
- psychological (coping, interpersonal skills and stresses)
- cultural (attitudes, values and beliefs)
- economic (income, job history and skills)
- political (government and legal influence)
- spiritual (church attendance and values)
What is the transtheoretical model?
It is a model of intentional change that focuses on the decision making of the individual. It involves emotions, cognitions and behavior
What are the stages of the TTM?
What is the decisional balance?
relative weighing of the pros and cons of changing a behavior
What is the situational temptation measure?
it reflects the intensity of urges to engage in a specific behavior when in the midst of difficult situations
What is the self efficacy construct?
it represents the situation specific confidence that people have that they can cope with high risk situations without relapsing to their unhealthy or high risk habit
What are the experiential processes of change?
- conciousness raising (increasing awareness)
- dramatic relief (emotional arousal)
- environmental reevaluation (social reappraisal)
- social liberation (environmental opportunities)
- self reevaluation(self reappraisal)
What are the behavioral processes of change?
- stimulus control
- helping relationship
- counter conditioning
- reinforcement management
- self liberation
What is health education?
any combination of planned learning experiences based on sound theories that provide individuals, groups and communities the opportunities to acquire the information nad the skills needed to make quality health decisions
What are the HP objectives in school, work and community
- school - middle through university age
- work - comprehensive health promotion programs
- community - culturally sensitive health departments, increase health promotion activities for older adults
What are the goals for health education in health promotion?
- optimal states of health (increased length and quality of life)
- prevention or early detection of disease or disability
- personal empowerment
What is the health belief model?
attempts to explain and predict health behaviors by focusing on the attitudes and beliefs of individuals.
What is the behavioral learning theory?
A person's behavior changes in response to the immediate consequences, pleasurable consequences strengthen behavior and unpleasant consequences weaken the behavior
What is social cognitive theory?
health behaviors are learned in families. We learn by modeling our parents