Mutually hurting stalement. When warring parties are locked into a conflict that is mutually painful and both believe that they cannot escalate to victory, the prospects for a negotiated outcome improve significantly. By William Zartman.
Theory of mediation
A limited number of high-calibre mediators are required, using a range of skills and tactics, supplemented by various diplomatic tracks. Mediation interventions may not necessarily seek to resolve the conflict, but form part of a limited or incremental approach that seeks to mitigate or contain the violence.
Theory of reconciliation
To achive peace, long-term efforts are required to promote sustained dialogue, improved relationships and trust among all social groups, not just between the principal adversaries.
An inclusive, nationalpolitical process should seek to establish robust institutions to share or divide state power, as this increases the prospects of an enduring peace.
Credible commitment theory
Power-sharing political process requires the involvement of trusted third parties that are willing to provide political and security guarantees.
Analysis of spoilers theory
Certain parties, or elements of the warring parties, will seek to disrupt negotiations: strategies will be required to ‘induce’ or integrate some and marginalize, coerce or contain certain others.
Local peace-building theory
Efforts should be made tostrengthen community capacities to resolve disputes peacefully, develop trust and social cohesion within and between communities and promote inter‐ethnic and inter-group dialogue.