Protein Synthesis Vocabulary

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  1. Nucleic Acid
    organic polymer that stores information for the production of proteins which is involved with the transmission of this inherited information
  2. DNA
    deoxyribo nucleicacid; Central nucleic acid with the code of proteins. Major component of chromosomes in eukaryotes and found primarily in the nucleus of eukaryotes although a small amount is found in the mitochondria and chloroplasts. Known as the template of the genetic code.
  3. Nucleotide
    • repeating
    • monomers that make up nucleic acids; made of phosphate, sugar, and N-base
  4. Phosphate
    • functional
    • group made of 1-phosphorous atom bonded to 4- oxygen atoms; (-) charge due to
    • oxygen atoms with extra electrons. Bond
    • to the 5th-prime carbon of the sugar. Make up the backbone of a DNA strand
    • alternating with the sugars
  5. Sugar
    • In
    • DNA it is deoxyribose, in RNA it is the regular ribose sugar. Both are pentose, 5 carbon sugars. The 1’ Carbon is bonded to the N-base
    • compound. The 3’ Carbon is where the new
    • nucleotides would be added. The 5’
    • Carbon is where the phosphate is attached
  6. N-Base Compounds
    • 1. There are 5 different N-base compounds. In DNA:

    • Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine.
    • In RNA: Adenine, Uracil,
    • Cytosine, and Guanine. They make up the
    • center of the DNA and the order is the code for the proteins. They are divided into two groups depending on
    • their structure: Purines and
    • Pyrimidines.
  7. Purine

    These N-bases are made of two carbon rings and are larger than the others. The examples are: Adenine and Guanine.

  8. Pyrimadine
    • These
    • N-bases are made of only 1 carbon ring and are smaller than the others. The examples are: Thymine, Cytosine, and Uracil
  9. Base Pairing Rule
    • A purine must bond by weak H-bonds to a pyrimidine. The bonding is very specific, ex: A=T and C=G for DNA & A=U and C=G
    • for RNA!
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Protein Synthesis Vocabulary
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