Vocab and Key Info

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GreenCows
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64530
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Vocab and Key Info
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2011-02-06 19:18:05
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Science
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Ch.12
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  1. Transformation
    process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene/genes from another strain of bacteria.
  2. Bacteriophage
    virus that infects bacteria, "bacteria eater".
  3. Nucleotides
    monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
  4. Base Pairing
    principle that bonds in DNA and can form only between adenine + thymine and between guanine + cytosine.
  5. Avery and other scientists discovered...
    that the nucleic acid DNA stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation of an organism to the next.
  6. Hershey and Chase concluded...
    that the genetic material of the bacteriophage was DNA, not protein.
  7. Watson and Crick's model was of
    DNA, a double helix, in which 2 strands were wound around each other.
  8. Chromatin
    granular material visable within the nucleus, consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins.
  9. Histone
    protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin.
  10. Replication
    copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA.
  11. DNA Polymerase
    enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule.
  12. What happens during DNA replication?
    • 1.the DNA molecule seperates into 2 strands.
    • 2.Then, produces 2 new complementary strands following the rules of base pairing.
    • 3.Each strand of the double helix of DNA serves as a template,or model, for the new strand.
  13. Genes
    coded DNA instructions that control the production of proteins within the cell.
  14. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
    DNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell.
  15. Transfer RNA (tRNA)
    type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis.
  16. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
    type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes.
  17. Transcription
    process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complimentary sequence in RNA.
  18. RNA Polymerase
    enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and seperates the DNA strands during transcription.
  19. Promoter
    region of DNA indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA.
  20. Intron
    sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein.
  21. Exon
    expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein.
  22. Codon
    3 nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid.
  23. Translation
    decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain.
  24. Anticodon
    group of 3 bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon.
  25. There are 3 main types of RNA:
    messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA.
  26. During transcription:
    • 1.RNA polymerase binds to DNA and seperate the DNA strands.
    • 2.DNA polymerase then uses one strand of DNA as a template from which nucleotides are assembled into a strand of RNA.
  27. During translation:
    the cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins.
  28. Mutations
    • change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic info.
    • changes in the genetic material.
    • mistakes cells make in copying their own DNA, inserting an incorrect base/even skipping a base as the new strand is put together.
  29. Point Mutation
    gene mutation involving changes in one/a few nucleotides.
  30. Frameshift Mutation
    mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting/deleting a nucleotide.
  31. Polyploidy
    condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes.
  32. Gene Mutations
    mutations that produce changes in a single gene.
  33. Chromosomal Mutations
    • mutations that produce changes in whole chromosomes.
    • changes the number/structure of chromosomes.
  34. Point Mutations
    • occur at a single point in the DNA sequence.
    • Substitutions- one base is changed to another.
  35. Frameshift Mutations
    • may change every amino acid that follows the point of the mutation. Can alter a protein so much that is is unable to preform its normal functions.
    • Insertions/Deletions- a base is inserted/removed from the DNA sequence.
  36. 4 Types Of Chromosomal Mutation
    • 1.Deletion-loss of all/part of a chromosome.
    • 2.Duplication-produce extra copies of parts of a chromosome.
    • 3.Inversions-reverse direction of parts of chromosomes.
    • 4.Translocations-part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another.

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