Anat. Chapter 12 Cardiovascular

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Anat. Chapter 12 Cardiovascular
2011-02-06 22:04:47

Chapter 12
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  1. Cardiovascular System (circulatory system)
    • -Transports elements in the blood throughout the body.
    • -Regulates body temperature.
    • -Maintains Homeostasis
  2. Oxygen
    Gas necessary for cellular respiration and circulated to the tissues by the blood.
  3. Apex
    The tip of the heart that rests on the diaphragm.
  4. Diaphragm
    Main muscle of breathing that lies between the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
  5. Mediastinum
    • -Area behind sternum and in front of lungs.
    • -Separates lungs.
    • -Includes trachea, esophagus, and large blood vessels.
  6. Sternum
  7. Thoracic Vertebrae
  8. Endocardium
    Inner layer that lines the heart chambers.
  9. Epicardium
    Outermost layer of the heart.
  10. Myocardium
    • -Thick middle layer of the heart
    • -Muscle of the heart.
  11. Pericardium
    Sac in which the heart is located
  12. Visceral Layer
    Membrane that covers the outside of the heart.
  13. Atrium
    • -Top chamber of the heart.
    • -Smaller and less muscular than ventricle.
    • -Function is to hold blood until it is moved to the ventricle.
  14. Chambers
    4 Cavities of the heart.
  15. Septum
    Wall that divides the left and right chambers of the heart.
  16. Ventricles
    • -Pump blood out of heart.
    • -Left ventricle has the thickest wall.
  17. Aorta
    Body's largest artery
  18. Aortic Semilunar Valve
    • -Valve between left ventricle and Aorta.
    • -Prevents blood from returning to the left ventricle.
  19. Cardiac Valves
    Valves that prevent blood in the ventricles from backing up into the atria when the ventricles contract.
  20. Cardiomegaly
    Enlargement of the heart.
  21. Chordae Tendineae
    Fiberous cords that prevent the atrioventricular valves from collapsing under pressure.
  22. Cusps
    Flaps on a valve.
  23. Hypertrophy
    Enlargement of an organ.
  24. Inferior Vena Cava
    Vein that brings blood low in oxygen from the lower limbs and trunk.
  25. Mitral (bicuspid) Valve
    Valve between the left atrium and left ventricle
  26. Pulmonary Artery
    Artery that carries oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.
  27. Pulmonary Semilunar Valve
    • -Valve between right ventricle and pulmonary artery
    • -Prevents backflow of blood into the right ventricle
  28. Pulmonary Vein
    Vein that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the left atrium.
  29. Regurgitation
    Blood flowing back from where it came.
  30. Superior Vena Cava
    Vein that brings blood low in oxygen from the head and upper limbs.
  31. Tricuspid Valve
    Valve that separates right atrium and right ventricle.
  32. Valve
    Structure that controls blood direction through the heart.
  33. Valvular Insufficiency
    When a valve loses its abitlity to close tightly and permits blood to leak back into chamber.
  34. Venae Cavae
    • -Largest veins in the body.
    • -Bring oxygen-poor blood from the body to the right atrium.
  35. Cardiac Cycle
    One heartbeat, which is one contraction and one relaxation.
  36. Diastole
    Relaxation of the heart
  37. Heartbeat
    • -One cardiac cycle
    • -measurable contraction and relaxation of the heart.
  38. Murmur
    Abnormal heart sound
  39. Stethescope
    Instrument used to listen to heart.
  40. Systole
    Contraction of the heart
  41. Atrioventricular Bundle
    Fibers of the atrioventircular node that send impulses to the Purkinje fibers
  42. Atrioventricular (AV) Node
    Group of cells in the right atrium that produces heart's electrical impulses.
  43. Bundle of His
    • -Atroioventricular Bundle
    • -Small band of muscle fibers that receive electrical impulses from the AV node.
  44. Cardiac Output
    Amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute.
  45. Electrocardiogram
    • -Recording of cardiac cycles
    • -Graphic picture of the heart's electrical activity.
  46. Purkinje Fibers
    • -Extend along the outer walls of the ventricles
    • -Cause the ventricles to contract.
  47. Sinoatrial (SA) Node
    • -Natural pacemaker of the heart.
    • -Located in right atrial wall
  48. Stroke Volume
    The amount of blood pumped by the ventricles in one beat.
  49. Antagonistic
    Muscle exerting an opposite action to that of another muscle (in this case, sympathetic and parasympathetic)
  50. Arrhythmia
    Irregular heart rate or rhythm
  51. Autonomic Nervous System
    System responsible for involuntary actions of muscles and glands.
  52. Flutter
    A rapid but regular heart contraction.
  53. Heart Block
    Occurs when an impulse is slowed or stopped at a certain point in the conduction process.
  54. Parasympathetic
    System that returns the body back to balance after responding to. a reactive state
  55. Sympathetic
    System responsible for the body's response to something
  56. Carbon Dioxide
    Gas waste released by the body cells.
  57. Coronary Circulation
    Circulation of blood through the heart.
  58. Deoxygenated Blood
    Blood that is low in oxygen.
  59. Pulmonary Circulation
    Moves blood from the heart to the lungs then back to the heart again.
  60. Systemic Circulation
    The movement of oxygenated blood through the heart and back out to body tissue.
  61. Anterior Descending Artery
    Artery that supplies blood to the right and left ventricles
  62. Circumflex Artery
    Artery that suppplies blood to the left atrium and left ventricle.
  63. Coronary Arteries
    Blood vessels that branch from the aorta and supply the heart muscle with oxygen.
  64. Infarction
    Death of tissue
  65. Ischemia
    Heart muscle is deprived of oxygen.
  66. Marginal Artery
    Artery that supplies blood to the right atrium and right ventricle
  67. Posterior Descending Artery
    Artery that supplies blood to the left and right ventricles.
  68. Anastomose
    When arteries connect.
  69. Bifurcate
    Split into 2 branches
  70. Circle of Willis
    Circle of arteries that provides a detour for arterial blood if an obsruction occurs.
  71. External Carotid Arteries
    Provide blood supply to the neck, face, and scalp.
  72. Internal Carotid Arteries
    Supply blood to the brain and networks within various parts of the brain.
  73. Portal Vein
    Carries blood from the digestive organs to the liver.
  74. Vertebral Arteries
    Pair of arteries that arise from the subclavian arteries and move toward the brain.
  75. Ductus Arteriosus
    In a fetus, connects the pulmonary artery with the aorta.
  76. Ductus Venosus
    In a fetus, conducts blood from the umbilical vein, bypassing the liver to the inferior vena cava.
  77. Foramen Ovale
    In a fetus, an opening located in the septum between the atria, allows blood to be pumped through heart and to the body without passing through lungs.
  78. Cardiologist
    Physician specializing in the heart.
  79. Cyanosis
    Bluish discoloration of the nails or skin caused by lack of oxygen in the blood.
  80. Diaphoresis
    Excessive sweating
  81. Hypoxia
    Condition of low oxygen levels
  82. Internist
    Physician who specializes in internal organs.
  83. Occlusion
    Obstruction of blood vessel
  84. Prophylactic
  85. Sequela
    Secondary result of another disease.
  86. Stenosis
    • -Condition in which blood cannot flow through vlaves into the next chamber.
    • -caused by hardening of the flaps or scar tissue on the flaps.
  87. Syncope
  88. Arterioles
    Small arteries that carry blood to the capillaries.
  89. Artery
    Blood vessel that transports blood high in oxygen from the heart.
  90. Blood Vessels
    Elastic tube-like channel through which blood flows.
  91. Capillary
    Smallest blood vessel that moves oxygen into and removes waste products from body tissue.
  92. Diameter
    The space across a vessel (from wall to wall)
  93. Varices
    Plural of Varix
  94. Varix
    Twisted and swollen vein.
  95. Vasoconstrict
    To make a blood vessel narrower.
  96. Vasodilate
    To make a blood vessel wider.
  97. Vein
    Blood vessel that carries blood low in oxygen to the heart.
  98. Venules
    Small veins that carry blood from cappilaries to veins.
  99. Aneurysm
    Weakness in the wall of an artery.
  100. Claudication
    Symptoms of pain and weakness in the legs that subside with rest.
  101. Constrict
    To make smaller or decrease in size.
  102. Dilation
    Making larger, increase in size.
  103. Embolus
    Clot that moves through the bloodstream.
  104. Phlebitis
    Inflammation of the walls of veins.
  105. Thrombus
    Stationary clot.