Anatomy Chapter 12
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Anatomy Chapter 12
Approximately how many bones occur in the adult skeleton?
What are the two main divisions of the skeleton?
axial & appendicular
What are the three main components of the axial skeleton?
skull, vertebral column, & rib cage
What are the two main divisions of the skull?
cranium & face
What is the bone of the forehead?
What cavities hold the eyeballs?
What two large openings lie within these cavities?
superior & inferior orbital fissures
What is a synonym for the brow ridges?
What bones form the bridge of the nose?
What bones form the upper jaw, the lateral walls of the nasal cavity, and teh floor of the orbits?
What cavities lie within the maxillary bones inferior to the orbits?
What bone forms the lower jaw?
What prominence on it forms the chin?
What is the cavity of the nose?
What prominence marks this cavity's anterior, inferior border?
anterior nasal spine
What structure divides the nasal cavity into right and left halves?
What scroll-shaped bones are visible on the inferior lateral walls of this cavity?
What four bones can be seen in a superior view of the skull?
frontal bone, both parietal bones, & occiptal bones
What articulation between three of the four bones visible from a superior view of the skull occurs anteriorly in a frontal plane?
What articulation can be seen running along the midline in a superior view of the skull?
What openings can be seen along the posterior one-third of the sagittal suture?
What articulation can be seen posteriorly in a frontal plane between three of the four bones visible from a superior view of the skull?
What five bones can be seen in a posterior view of the skull?
occipital, parietal, & temporal
What is the bump on the midline on the posterior side of the skull?
external occipital protuberance
What are variable bones that commonly occur in the lambdoidal suture and occasionally in other articulations within the skull?
What arch of bone can be seen in a lateral view of the skull?
What movable articulation can be palpated just anterior to the external auditory canal?
What bump of bone occurs posterior to the ear?
What sinuses can be seen in a midsagittal view of the skull?
frontal & sphenoidal sinuses
What structures can be seen in a midsagittal view of the skull as they form the nasal septum?
vomer & perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
What bone separates the cranial cavity and the nasal cavity?
What two bones form the hard palate?
maxilla & palatine bones
In an inferior view of the skull what flat, wing-like structures of the sphenoid can be seen?
pterygoid processes & internal nares
What openings into the nasal cavity can be seen in an inferior view of the skull?
Through what opening of the skull does the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve pass?
At what opening of the skull does the internal jugular vein begin?
Through what opening in the skull does the internal carotid artery pass?
Through what opening in the skull does the spinal cord pass?
With what smooth, rounded structures of the skull does the atlas articulate?
What bone forms the anterior floor of the cranial cavity?
Through what portion of the ethmoid does the olfactory nerve pass?
What portions of the sphenoid extend laterally from the body of the sphenoid?
What bone of the skull encases the ear?
external acoustic meatus
Through what opening in the skull does the optic nerve pass?
Through what opening in the skull does the vestibulococchlear nerve pass?
internal acoustic meatus
What suture extends across the superior surface of the skull along a coronal plane?
What suture extends like an arc across the posterior surface of the skull?
What suture lies along the midline superiorly on the skull?
What suture lies laterally between the parietal bone and temporal bone on each side?
What bones may be found within sutures?
What is a synonym for "skullcap"?
What bone forms part of the calvaria, the forehead, and the roof of the orbits?
What is a synonym for the brow ridges?
What cavities lie within the frontal bone?
What part of the skull do the parietal bones form?
lateral walls & roof
What part of the skull do the temporal bones form?
inferior lateral walls & part of the floor of the cranium
What part of the temporal bone holds the middle and inner ear?
What opening occurs on the medial, posterior aspect of the temporal bone for blood vessels and nerves?
internal acoustic meatus
What is the posterior region of the temporal bone?
What prominence on the temporal bone lies posterior to the ear, serves as the insertion for the sternocleidomastoid, and contains air cells?
What region of the temporal bone surrounds the bony, external opening of the ear?
What thin point of bone on the temporal bone serves as an attachment for several hyoid and tongue muscles?
What opening does the facial nerve pass through on the interior surface of the skull?
What opening does the internal carotid artery pass through here?
What region of the temporal bone forms the superior, laterl, flat area of the bone?
What bony process projects anteriorly from the squamous region of the temporal bone?
What part of squamous region of the temporal bone articulates with the mandible?
What is the opening for the ear?
external auditory canal
What is the flat, posterior region of the occipital bone?
What region of the occipital bone forms the base of the cranium?
What is the large, circular opening within the skull for the spinal cord to pass through?
What are the smooth, rounded projections on the left and right sides of the foramen magnum?
Within the skull what is the is the opening for cranial nerve XII?
What superior, horizontal line projects laterally from the external occipital protuberance?
superior nuchal line
What is the thick, medial part of the sphenoid?
What cavities lie within the sphenoid?
What projections of the sphenoid lie superior to the superior orbital fissure?
What projections of the sphenoid lie inferior to the superiof orbital fissure and can be seen in a lateral view of the skull?
Whithin the sphenoid what is the depression holding the pituitary gland?
What is the bony enclosure of the hypophyseal fossa?
Through what opening of the sphenoid does the optic nerve pass?
What three foramina penetrate the greater wings of the sphenoid?
foramen rotundum, foramen ovale, & foramen spinosum
What projections of the sphenoid provide attachment surfaces for some muscles that move the lower jaw and soft palate?
medial & lateral pterygoid processes
What is the superior, midsagittal elevation of the ethmoid?
What horizontal structure of the ethmoid separates the cranial and nasal cavities?
Through what openings do the olfactory nerves pass?
What parts of the ethmoid hold the ethmoidal sinuses?
What are the cavities within the ethmoid?
What part of the ethmoid forms the medial wall of the orbits?
What scroll-like extensions of the ethmoid project medially into the nasal cavity?
superior & middle nasal conchae
List the three crainial fossae.
anterior, middle, & posterior
What is a synonym for the zygomatic bones?
What bony projections of the zygomatic bones contribute to the zygomatic arches?
In addition to the temporal process, what other two processes articulate the zygomatic bone with surrounding bones?
maxillary & frontal process
Where are the lacrimal bones located?
medial & anterior orbital wall
Within the lacrimal bone what structure allows the passage of the nasolacrimal duct?
The nasal bones form what facial feature?
bridge of the nose
The vomer helps to form what structure within the nasal cavity?
List the three nasal conchae found on each side of the nasal cavity.
superior, middle, & inferior
What is a synonym for the nasal conchae?
What is the overall shape of the palatines?
What portion of the palatines forms the posterior third of the hard palatte?
What part of the palatine forms the posterior, lateral wall of the nasal cavity?
What part of the palatine forms a small part of the floor of the orbit?
What part of the maxilla forms the floor of the orbit?
What opening within the maxilla do the infraorbital artery and nerve pass through?
What part of the maxilla holds the upper teeth?
What part of the maxilla forms the anterior two-thrids of the hard palette?
What large cavity lies within the maxilla?
What is the horizontal portion of the mandible?
What are the ascending, posterior regions of the mandible?
What part of the mandible holds the lower teeth?
What are the two corners of the mandible?
angle of the mandible
What opening lies on the anterolateral surface of the body of the mandible?
What opening within the mandible lies on the posterior, medial side?
What process of the mandible articulates with the temporal bone?
What is the smooth, round portion of this process?
What is the joing between the mandible and the temporal bone?
What process of the mandible does the temporalis insert on?
What is the U-shaped depression between the two mandibular processes?
What bones make up the roof of the nasal cavity?
ethmoid - cribriform palte, frontal bone, & sphenoid bone
What bones make up the floor of the nasal cavity?
maxilla & palatine
List the groups of paranasal sinuses.
ethmoid, frontal, maxillary, & sphenoidal
What is the collective term for the tiny bones of the middle ear?
List the ear ossicles from lateral to medial.
malleus, incus, & stapes
What small, U-shaped bone lies superior to the larynx?
What is the anatomical term for the softspots in a baby's skull?
What is the function of the fontanelles?
birth & growth
List the four fontanels.
anterior, posterior, sphenoid, & mastoid