Lab #2

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Lab #2
2010-02-09 03:19:31
Exercise 21 and 22

Ex.21: Blood Vessels-Macro Ex.22: Cardiovascular Physiology
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  1. Define: Cardiac Cycle
    One complete heartbeat, including atrial and ventricular sytole and diastole.
  2. Define: Hypertension
    Abnormally high blood pressure.
  3. Define: Pulse
    The rythemic expansion and recoil of the arteries.
  4. Define: Asclutation areas for the heart.
    • The best locations to hear heart sounds.
    • >Bicuspid area
    • >Tricuspid area
    • >Aortix semilunar area
    • >Pulmonary semilunar area
  5. Define: Sphygmomanometer
    An instrument used to measure blood pressure using an inflatable cuff placed around a limb.
  6. What are Korotkoff's sounds?
    The noises heard when taking a blood pressure reading, originated by blood passage causing vibrations in the walls.
  7. Define: Cardiac Conduction System
    A network of specialized cardiac muscle cells which is able to generate and conduct action potentials without neural or hormonal stimulation.
  8. Identify the components of the cardiac conduction system.
    • 1. Sinoatrial (SA) node
    • 2. Atrioventricular (AV) node
    • 3. AV bundle
    • 4. Bundle branches
    • 5. Purkinje fibers
  9. Describe the functions of the cardiac conduction system components.
    • 1. Sinoatrial (SA) node- serve as the heart's pacemaker by spontaneously generating electricle impulses which spread across the walls of the atria, resulting in atrial contraction (systole).
    • 2. Atrioventricular (AV) node- the atrial muscle cells repolarize and relax.
    • 3. AV bundle- spread cardiac impulses.
    • 4. Bundle branches- continue to spread cardiac impulses branching from the AV bundle.
    • 5. Purkinje fibers- contine to spread cardiac impulses branching from the bundle branches.
  10. What is an electrocardiogram (ECG)?
    A graphic record of the electrical activities of the heart, as monitored at specific locations on the body surface.
  11. What does a P wave indicate?
    It indicates the depolarization of the atria just prior to the beginning of an atrial systole.
  12. What does the QRS complex represent?
    It represents the repolartization of the ventricles.
  13. The T wave results from...?
    Results from the ventricular repolarization.
  14. Define: "lub-dup" vibrations
    The two distinctive heart sounds made by the closing of the heart valves when blood passes from the atria to the ventricles and from the ventricles to the great vessels.
  15. Define: Systolic pressure
    The peak arterial pressure measured during ventricular systole.
  16. Define: Diastolic pressure
    Pressure measured in the walls of a muscular artery when the left ventricle is in relaxation.
  17. Define: Pulse pressure
    The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures.
  18. How is pulse pressure used as a diagnostic tool?
    It is used to calculate to mean arterial pressure (MAP).
  19. What is the formula for calculating the mean arterial pressure (MAP)?
    • systolic pressure (mm Hg) - diastolic pressure (mm Hg) = pulse pressure (mm Hg)
    • MAP = diastolic pressure + 1/3 (pulse pressure)

    • Example: A person with a blood pressure of 120/80...
    • 120 mm Hg - 80 mm Hg = 40 mm Hg
    • MAP = 80 mm Hg + 1/3 (40 mm Hg) = 93.3 mm Hg
  20. Which heart chamber pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk?
    The right ventricle.
  21. Which heart chamber receives blood from the pulmonary veins?
    The left atrium.
  22. The aorta runs to the left of what structure?
  23. Which heart chamber pumps blood into the aorta?
    The left ventricle.
  24. What is the functional difference between pulmonary arteries and bronchial arteries?