Biology Ch 3
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What do all cells contain?
Water, proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, salts
What do prokaryotic cells contain?
- No membrane-bound nucleus
- No membrane-bound organelles
What do eukaryotic cells contain?
- Nucleus surrounded by double membrane
- Specialized membrane bound organelles with specific functions
Plant Cells (same as animal cells except for)
- Cell wall
- Large Central Vacuole
Characteristics of cell membrane
- Phosolipid bi-layer stabalized by cholesterol
- Membrane Proteins
- Carbohydrate Chains
What is active transport and what does it require?
- Drives molecules across a membrane from a region of lower concentration to higher concentration.
- Requires energy.
What is endocytosis
The process of taking liquids or fairly large molecules into a cell by engulfing them in a membrane.
What is phagocytosis?
A type of endocytosis in which the cell membrane engulfs large particles
What is pinocytosis
Process by which certain cells can engulf and incorporate droplets of fluid.
What is exocytosis
The release of substances out of a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane.
What are channel proteins?
Protein forming an aqueous pore spanning the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane which when open allows certain solutes to traverse the membrane.
What is passive transport and what does it work with?
- Movement of molecules across a cell membrane without energy input from the cell.
- Works with concentration gradient.
What is a concentration gradient
The difference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another.
What is osmosis?
Diffusion of water molecules across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration.
What is a hypertonic solution?
A solution that has a higher concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution.
What is a hypotonic solution?
A solution that has a lower concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution.
What is an isotonic solution?
A solution that has an equal concetration of dissolved particles compared with another solution.
What is osmotic pressure?
The pressure that must be applied to a solution to prevent inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane
What is diffusion
The movement of molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
What is facilitated diffusion?
The diffusion of molecules across a membrane through transport proteins.
Chloroplast structure and function
- Bean shaped with dots in it. Slightly larger than mitochondrion.
- Carry out photosynthesis.
Structure and function of cytoplasm
- Everything in cell-organelles+juices
- Gives shape to cell.
Cytoskelet structure and function
- Network of proteins, microtubules and microfilaments
- Gives support to cell
Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum structure and function
- Connected to nucleus, contains no ribosomes.
- Involved in production of lipids.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum structure and function
- Connected to nucleus, contains ribosomes.
- Involved in production of proteins.
Golgi Apparatus Structure and Function
- Layered stacks of membrane, not connected to nucleus.
- Processes, sorts, and delivers proteins.
Lysosomes structure and function
- Black bean shaped.
- Digests things in cell and stores enzymes.
Mitochondrion structure and function
- Bean shaped but smaller than chloroplasts-have 2 membranes.
- Supply energy to cell.
Structure and function of nucleus
- Ball in center of cell. Contains nucleolus.
- Storehouse for DNA, controls cell's functions.
Structure and function of nucleolus
- Ball in the middle of nucleus
- Assembles ribosomes
Structure and function of ribosomes
- Small dots throughout cell
- Site of protein synthesis
What is epithelial tissue
Protective sheets of tighly packed cells connected by special junctions.
What is adipose tissue?
A kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy.
What are the 3 components of the cell theory?
- All organisms are composed of cells
- The cell is the basic unit of structure in living things
- All cells come from per-existing cells.
Who was the first person to name and describe cells?
What is the primary functional unit of the cell membrane
What are the functions of the cell membrane?
Regulates everything moving in/out of cell
What is the difference between active transport and facilitated diffusion
Facilitated diffusion used transport proteins requiring no energy and active transport uses transport proteins requiring chemical energy.
Explain the difference between a hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic solution
Differences between eukaryotic cell and prokaryotic cell
- Prokaryotes have no nucleus
- Prokaryotes have no membrane bound organelles
- Eukaryotic cells are sometimes multicellular
What organelle is reponsible for storage of starch in a potato?
What organelle is reponsible for the hydrolosis of a dissacharide
What organelle is the site of cellular respiration?
What organelle is responsible for synthesis of a protein
What organelle is responsible for digesting a bacteria that a cell ingested
Structural differences between plant and animal cell
Plant cells have cell wall, chloroplasts, rectangular shaped, and large central vacuole.
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