Lab Quiz 2

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snowboarderguy
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Lab Quiz 2
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2011-02-09 22:21:06
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Lab Quiz 2
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  1. What are the cranial bones?
    • Anterior Cranial Fossae: supports the frontal lobes of the cerebrum.
    • Middle Cranial Fossae: support portions of the temporal and parietal lobes of the cerebrum and the diencephalon.
    • Posterior Cranial Fossae: support portions of the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes of the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem.
  2. What are the cranial meninges (connective tissue membranes)?
    • Dura Mater
    • Arachnoid Mater
    • Pia Mater
  3. What are the components of the brain stem?
    • The Medulla Oblongata
    • The Pons
    • The Midbrain
  4. What components are within the midbrain?
    • The cerebral peduncles
    • Corpora quadrigemina
    • Superior colliculi
    • Inferior colliculi
  5. What are the components of the cerebellum?
    • Two cerebellar hemispheres (central area)
    • Vermis (connects the hemispheres)
    • Folia (folds, "gyri")
    • Arbor vitae (white matter)
    • Cerebellar cortex (gray matter)
  6. What are the components of the diencephalon?
    • The Thalamus
    • The Hypothalamus
    • The Epithalamus
  7. What components are within the thalamus?
    Intermediate Mass
  8. What are the components within the hypothalamus?
    • Infundibulum (stalk, connects pituitary gland to hypothalamus)
    • Mammillary Bodies (two small round masses, posterior to infundibulum, replay stations for smell and taste reflexes)
    • Optic Chiasm (optic nerve crosses, anterior to infundibulum)
    • Pituitary Gland (large pea, attached to the end of the infundibulum)
  9. What are the components within the epithalamus?
    Pineal Gland (small endocrine glad that secretes the hormone melatonin)
  10. What are the components of the cerebrum?
    • Cerebral cortex (gray matter)
    • Internal capsule (large group of projection fibers, contains sensory and motor tracts that connect the cerebral cortex to the brain stem and spinal cord)
    • Corpus callosum (prominent commissural fiber tract, observable in a midsagittal section, it connects the two cerebral hemispheres)
    • Fornix (tract of arched association fibers, center)
    • Basal nuclei (gray matter composed of paired nuclei, found deep within each cerebral hemisphere)
  11. Define: Gyrus
    Its an elevation or fold in the cerebral cortex; increases the surface area for neuron cell bodies.
  12. Define: Sulcus
    Its a shallow groove between elevations.
  13. Define: Fissure
    Its a deep groove.
  14. Cranial Nerve I
    (Name, Function & Nerve Testing)
    Olfactory: Smell

    Sniff spice or coffee grounds (Ability to smell is normal)
  15. Cranial Nerve II
    (Name, Function & Nerve Testing)
    Optic: Vision

    Read a Snellen eye chart at 20ft (Ability to read is normal)
  16. Cranial Nerve III
    (Name, Function & Nerve Testing)
    Oculomotor: Movement of eyelid & eyeball; accommodation of lens & pupillary constriction

    • Observe eyelids (Eyelid not drooping is normal)
    • Look up, down, medially, laterally, upper lateral, lower lateral (Ability to move eyeball is normal)
  17. Cranial Nerve IV
    (Name, Function & Nerve Testing)
    Trochlear: Movement of eyeball

    Observe eyelids (Eyelid not drooping is normal)Look up, down, medially, laterally, upper lateral, lower lateral (Ability to move eyeball is normal)
  18. Cranial Nerve V
    (Name, Function & Nerve Testing)
    Trigeminal: Chewing

    Lightly touch the cornea of the subject with wisp of cotton (Blinking is normal)
  19. Cranial Nerve VI
    (Name, Function & Nerve Testing)
    Abducens: Movement of eyeball

    Observe eyelids (Eyelid not drooping is normal)Look up, down, medially, laterally, upper lateral, lower lateral (Ability to move eyeball is normal)
  20. Cranial Nerve VII
    (Name, Function & Nerve Testing)
    Facial: Taste; facial expression; secretion of tears; salivation

    Check tip of tongue for taste with sugar (Ability to taste is normal)
  21. Cranial Nerve VIII
    (Name, Function & Nerve Testing)
    Vestibulocochlear: Equilibrium and hearing

    Have the subject stand straight with eyes closed (Absence of swaying is normal)
  22. Cranial Nerve IX
    (Name, Function & Nerve Testing)
    Glossopharyngeal: Tates; swallowing and speech; secretion of saliva

    Using a cotton-tipped applicator, gently touch the subject's uvula to elicit a gag reflex (Gag response is normal)
  23. Cranial Nerve X
    (Name, Function & Nerve Testing)
    Vagus: Tates and somatic sensation from pharynx

    Using a cotton-tipped applicator, gently touch the subject's uvula to elicit a gag reflex (Gag response is normal)
  24. Cranial Nerve XI
    (Name, Function & Nerve Testing)
    Accessory: Swallowing

    Have subject shrug shoulders against resistance as you are holding them down (Both sides having equal strength is normal)
  25. Cranial Nerve XII
    (Name, Function & Nerve Testing)
    Hypoglossal: Speech and Swallowing

    Ask your lab partner to stick out and retract his/her tongue (Tongue not deviating to one side is normal)
  26. What is a "snellen acuity card"?
    Chart used at the doctors office for visual testing for either distance or near sited. (20/20, 20/40, 20/15)

    • - The top number represents the distance a person being tested stands from the eye chart.
    • - The bottom number represents how far away a person with normal vision can be from the chart and still read the letters in that line.
  27. What is an "astigmatism chart"?
    Sun/clock shape chart. Use to test patients for astigmatism.
  28. What does 20/20 vision mean?
    20/20 indicates that the subject has normal vision.
  29. What does 20/40 mean?
    20/40 indicates that the subject sees at 20 feet what a person who has normal vision sees at 40 feet.
  30. What does 20/15 mean?
    20/15 Indicates that the subject sees at 20 feet what a person with normal vision sees at 15 feet. This is better than normal vision.
  31. What does the term astigmatism mean?
    An irregularity of lens or cornea of the eye causing the image to be out of focus and producing faulty vision.
  32. What are the two type of photoreceptors?
    • Rod
    • Cone
    • *They are connected to the ganglion cell layer by the bipolar neurons of the bipolar cell layer.*
  33. What is a rod?
    It is one of two type of photoreceptors in the retina of the eye; specialized for vision in dim light.
  34. What is a cone?
    It is one of the two type of photoreceptors in the retina that is specialized for highly acute color vision in bright light.
  35. What types of equilibrium receptors are present in the ear and where are they located?
    • The types of equilibrium receptors:
    • - Maculae, located in the utricle & saccule.
    • - Crista, located in the membranous semicircular ducts within the ampullae.
  36. What is Maculae?
    • It provides information on head position (static equilibrium), as well as linear acceleration and deceleration, a type of dynamic equilibrium.
    • Its one of the equilibrium receptors.
  37. What is Crista?
    • (Ampullaris) It detects rotational acceleration and deceleration, a type of dynamic equilibrium.
    • Its one of the equilibrium receptors.
  38. What and where are hair cells in the ear?
    • Hair cells transduce mechanical vibrations to electrical vibration. This results in nerve impulses in the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII).
    • They are located in the Cochlea.
  39. What are Otoliths?
    A particle of calcium carbonate crystals embedded in the otolithic membrane that functions in maintaining static equilibrium.
  40. Where is the Olfactory Epithelium located?
    Located: A specialized area of the epithelium lining the nasal cavity.

    It covers the inferior surface of the cribriform plate, the superior nasal concha, and the upper part of the middle nasal concha.
  41. What are the 4 primary taste sensations?
    • Sweet
    • Bitter
    • Salty
    • Sour
  42. What has been postulated as the fifth possibility taste sensation?
    MGS (Monosodium Glutamate)

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